Geron holds a broad international intellectual property portfolio (including patents and proprietary know-how) covering our pluripotent stem cell technologies, including technologies developed in our internal research programs and in conjunction with collaborators, and in-licensed patents. As of January 1, 2012, the portfolio includes over 50 issued or allowed US patents and more than 140 granted or accepted patents in other countries, together with more than 230 pending patent applications worldwide. These patents cover methods of differentiating human embryonic stem cells to produce functional cell types including cardiomyocytes (heart muscle cells), neural cells (nerve cells), chondrocytes (cartilage-forming cells), pancreatic islet cells, hematopoietic cells (blood-forming cells), dendritic cells (antigen-presenting cells of the immune system) and hepatocytes (liver cells) as well as the cells produced by those methods. In addition, our intellectual property covers technologies that we believe will facilitate large scale production of hESCs. The portfolio includes patent rights in-licensed from leading research institutes, including the University of Wisconsin-Madison where hESCs were first isolated, The University of Oxford, the University of California, Irvine, the University of Edinburgh and the University of Western Ontario. For further information on our stem cell intellectual property, please contact our Corporate Development group.