an investor only needs to own the stock for one day, the record date, to get the divi. buy before the ex divi date and sell on the ex divi date or after you get the divi. for an explanation in detail google ex divi date and check out wikipedia.
The ex-dividend date for the 9/3/14 payout was 7/30/14. The next ex-div date will be announced when the next dividend date is announced. In general, you have to hold a stock for more than 1 month to qualify for the dividend. If you buy PFE right now, you'll have to wait for about 4 months before you collect a dividend, early in December. The Key Statistics page shows both ex- and payout- dates for the next dividend.
"In general, you have to hold a stock for more than 1 month to qualify for the dividend."
No, that's not even remotely accurate. You can buy one day before the ex-date and sell ON the ex-date and still receive the dividend with any stock. It's usually a silly thing to do, as the stock price almost always drops by about the amount of the dividend on the ex-date, but holding for one month is completely unnecessary. You may have to wait a month after the ex-date before getting paid the dividend, but to qualify for a dividend, you need buy only the day before the ex-date.