If you don't know the answers or cannot find the answers to those questions, you most definitely should NOT be investing your money in the stock market. Put it in CD's while you finish HS and go to college.
Ex-dividend means that you will not get this quarterly dividend if you by on or after the ex date. If you buy any day before 2/13 - you get the dividend, even if you sell on 2/13 or after. So in this case you can "capture" the dividend by buying at the close on Friday and selling at the open on Monday. Note that "capture dividend" strategy makes no sense IMO, unless you have VERY special tax circumstances.
Your mistaken, your Broker will send all dividides to me and I distribute them to worthy sharholders. I will send all your divides to Escappee Girlee for a peck on the cheek from her..... she is smokin hot