Here is a calculation that is commonly used in the wine making industry to figure out APPROXIMATELY how much alcohol can be produced by the amount of sugar in a liter bottle. For each 1% of alcohol, it takes approximately 19 grams of sugar per liter combined with a yeast strain that ferments sugar into alcohol.
Now, look at a bottle of Lifeway Kefir. It has anywhere between 8 grams on up to about 21 grams of sugar in a 240ml serving. So how many servings in a liter? A little over 4. So you take 8 multiply it by 4 and that gives you 32 grams approximately for a liter of the plain kefir. How much alcohol can that POTENTIALLY produce? A little under 2% if it has 8 grams of sugar per 240ml serving. If you take the 21 grams of sugar per 240ml and multiply by 4, that gives you about 85 grams of sugar which equates into about 4+% alcohol POTENTIAL. Obviously these are all approximations and obviously some of the sugar is being fermented into diacetyl and acetyl methyl carbinol which aren't exactly healthy chemicals. They are actually considered to be industrial solvents... Go figure... Did these so-called Clinical Trials do these calculations? DId they fully ferment the kefir prior to testing? If not, WHY NOT? Alcoholic beverages have all gone through an lengthy fermentation process and this product IS a fermenting product that hasn't gone through full fermentation.