Navy heads of virus research know Vical's vaccine and adjuvant methods
From announcement April 2012 note the head of virology research at Naval Medical Research is involved
Navy Dengue Vaccine Enters First Clinical Trial
By Terri Moon Cronk
American Forces Press Service
SILVER SPRING, Md., April 26, 2012 – Navy medical researchers are conducting their first human clinical trial for a vaccine to protect U.S. troops from dengue, a potentially deadly mosquito-transmitted virus found in the tropical and subtropical areas of the world.
No treatment or cure exists for dengue, which is carried by a particular type of mosquito, said Navy Cmdr. Tad Kochel, chief of Viral and Rickettsial Disease research at the Naval Medical Research Center, here. Kochel said the disease is endemic in Southeast Asia, Africa, South America and the Caribbean.
Dengue puts 2 million people at risk worldwide, and adds about 500,000 new cases each year, Kochel said. Dengue also can cause 25,000 deaths annually, mostly among children who aren’t hospitalized before severe illness can set in.
“We need a vaccine because the troops are deployed where dengue is actively transmitted,” said Kochel, who developed the Navy’s dengue vaccine in 1993, which is now in the trial phase to determine whether it is safe and effective. Kochel, who has a doctorate in virology, said a vaccine against the virus will have to cover each of its four strains.
Gary Nabel ran at least a a DOZEN phase 1s at the Vaccine Research Center(VRC) using pDNA in an attempt to create a vaccine for numerous different viruses..... He even spend $$ millions to produce their own bioreactor, so he would not have to rely upon Vical for production.
NONE of these phase 1s produced response rates sufficient to warrant further studies......
So, if a genius like Gary Nabel, with tens of millions of backing from the NIH could not produce a pDNA vaccine with sufficient response rates for human use....
Should we really expect any greatly differing results from the NMR?
Many ways to manufacture, deliver, and boost efficacy.
Current trends in separation of plasmid DNA vaccines: A review
Ashraf Ghanem, , Robert Healey, Frady G. Adly
Chirality Group, Faculty of Applied Science, University of Canberra, Australian Capital Territory
Plasmid DNA (pDNA)-based vaccines offer more rapid avenues for development and production if compared to those of conventional virus-based vaccines. They do not rely on time- or labour-intensive cell culture processes and allow greater flexibility in shipping and storage. Stimulating antibodies and cell-mediated components of the immune system are considered as some of the major advantages associated with the use of pDNA vaccines. This review summarizes the current trends in the purification of pDNA vaccines for practical and analytical applications. Special attention is paid to chromatographic techniques aimed at reducing the steps of final purification, post primary isolation and intermediate recovery, in order to reduce the number of steps necessary to reach a purified end product from the crude plasmid.