Lost in the focus on Prima Biomed's CVac ovarian cancer treatment is another important line of research: the company's focus on developing oral vaccine against Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), a virus associated with development of cervical cancer. The initial approach being taken is to make nanoparticles, small protein beads that then are coated with vaccine, and a protective layer to prevent damage to the vaccine by stomach acid. The nanoparticles have a high surface area containing vaccine to present to the small intestine. The first target for the nanoparticle vaccine is (HPV). The program is in early stage development.