People should really understand what the concept in which they are investing. This is from Wikipedia for this topic:
"DNA vaccination is a technique for protecting an organism against disease by injecting it with genetically engineered DNA to produce an immunological response. Nucleic acid vaccines are still experimental, and have been applied to a number of viral, bacterial and parasitic models of disease, as well as to several tumour models. DNA vaccines have a number of advantages over conventional vaccines, including the ability to induce a wider range of immune response types."
Conventional vaccine technologies break up disease organisms into small particles which do not stimulate the immune system in a necessarily intense or complete fashion. The immune system responds more intensely to larger molecules with more "foreign sites." Ergo, instead of breaking an organism to pieces, take out the larger immunogenic parts and re-assemble them into even larger (more foreign) molecules. Hence Inovio's patents on these novel antigens. Then put them into the body in a site that is note easily accessible to the immune system (intracellularly). The foreign DNA inside a cell only makes the cell go "haywire" which leads to apoptosis (cell death). Then the white blood cells have to clean up the debris left by the dead cell. In cleaning up the debris, the discover the foreign molecules which get presented to the immune system. That is Inovio technology in a nutshell.
InovioScience on Yahoo is still there. We were off primary discussions yesterday on GMO foods, which have been around for 100 years.
Very good summary. I would just like to add the foreign DNA itself actually stimulates an immune response through the intracellular DNA pathway. This stimulates a type I interferon response which starts antiviral or T cell mediated immunity, as well as activates the inflammasome to induce a newer process called necroptosis, not apoptosis. Apoptosis is programmed cell death that occurs in the absence of inflammation (natural cell death) resulting in immune tolerance. This necroptosis induced with inflammation is programmed cell death that occurs during inflammation which leads to specific host immunity and not immune tolerance. Oh by the way, the protein that the DNA encodes gets produced by the cells that are transduced, and as the cells die, they stimulate the immune system to respond to the foreign antigen. Hence a self contained adjuvant and antigen all in the same DNA. Now I am a proponent of also including something to boost the immune response as well.
Dr (posgost)....I believe INO should make room on their scientific advisory board for you...you've certainly have proven yourself as an integral part of this (message) board !!! Thanks for all your input...even though most of us don't truly understand some of your explanations about INO's technology and efforts...we certainly sleep better knowing we have someone with your expertise keeping a wary eye out for us....again..thank you...