Enbridge has made regulatory filings to expand one of its heavy crude pipelines, (also known as Alberta Clipper), from Hardisty Alberta, to Superior, Wisconsin, by 120,000 bpd to 570,000 bpd, with potential to go to 800,000 bpd. The company has also announced that it has shipper support to add a new pipeline from Edmonton to Hardisty with stated initial capacity of 570,000 bpd, expandable to 800,000 bpd, and a potential 2015 in-service date.
In addition, as summarized in there is substantial pipeline capacity coming online to take WCSB crude oils through the U.S. heartland and out to markets in both the Gulf Coast and Eastern Canada. Most of these projects would also support taking either Bakken, Rocky Mountain, or Midcontinent U.S. crudes to these same markets. These projects are, for the most part, in addition to those known during the development of the 2011 Final EIS.
Plains All American and Enbridge have projects that will take Bakken crude either north (back up into Canada) or east, in all cases connecting in to the Enbridge Mainline system that runs cross-border into northern PADD 2. Enbridge, and also Kinder Morgan, are expanding capacity to bring crude oils from northern PADD 2, (Chicago area), and PADD 4 south to Cushing, which continues to be expanded as a crude oil hub. Expansions are also being made to pipelines from West Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas into Cushing to bring in growing production from those regions.
Enbridge has an array of projects under the heading “Eastern Access” to increase capacity to take WCSB, and also potentially Bakken, crudes to refineries in eastern PADD 2 but primarily in Sarnia, Ontario, and potentially Quebec and Montreal.
Did you know? Benjamin Franklin was president of America's first anti-slavery society. Franklin's last public act was to petition Congress on February 3, 1790, to abolish slavery, urging them to "devise means for removing the inconsistency from the character of the American People" and to "promote mercy and justice toward this distressed race."
On this day in 1787, the Continental Congress passed the Northwest Ordinance, which established the first official U.S. territory. Together with the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, the Northwest Ordinance is one of the four “organic laws” of the United States and, as such, is critical for understanding the Founders’ actual views concerning slavery. The final article of the ordinance declares unwaveringly that “there shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in the said territory.” By a firm majority, Congress had officially repudiated slavery. Significantly, the resolution caused five states to enter the Union as free states (Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, and Wisconsin). Furthermore, the ordinance was reaffirmed by the newly created U.S. Congress in 1789—two years after the ratification of the Constitution. The Northwest Ordinance reveals that, despite the compromises they made to preserve the Union, the Founders were firmly committed to immediately halting the spread of and eventually eradicating the institution of slavery.
In 1774, Rhode Island had already passed legislation providing that all slaves imported thereafter should be freed. In 1776, Delaware prohibited the slave trade and removed restraints on emancipation, as did Virginia in 1778. In 1779, Pennsylvania passed legislation providing for gradual emancipation, as did New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Connecticut in the early 1780s, and New York and New Jersey in 1799 and 1804. In 1780, the Massachusetts Supreme Court ruled that the state's bill of rights made slavery unconstitutional. By the time of the U.S. Constitution, every state (except Georgia) had at least proscribed or suspended the importation of slaves.
Thomas Jefferson's 1784 draft plan of government for the western territories prohibited slavery and involuntary servitude after the year 1800. The final Northwest Ordinance of 1787, passed by the Confederation Congress (and passed again two years later by the First Congress and signed into law by President George Washington), prohibited slavery in the future states of Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, and Wisconsin. That same year, Jefferson published his Notes on the State of Virginia, which included this passage about slavery:
And can the liberties of a nation be thought secure when we have removed their only firm basis, a conviction in the minds of the people that these liberties are the gift of God? That they are not to be violated but with his wrath? Indeed I tremble for my country when I reflect that God is just: that his justice cannot sleep for ever ... I think a change already perceptible, since the origin of the present revolution. The spirit of the master is abating, that of the slave rising from the dust, his condition mollifying, the way I hope preparing, under the auspices of heaven, for a total emancipation, and that this is disposed, in the order of events, to be with the consent of the masters, rather than by their extirpation.
Also the nonsense about Jefferson being a hypocrite on slavery. The man died bankrupt and slaves were property. He pushed it as far as he could go freeing Sally and her children. Very simple and very clear.
BUt some how every one knows the Progressive myth he supported slavery for himself.
The U.S. crude logistics system has, until recently, included only one pipeline, the 93,000 bpd Pegasus line, that runs from PADD 2 to PADD 3 (the Gulf Coast). This was because, historically, the flow of crude oils was northward from PADD 3 to PADD 2. In 2012, reversal of the existing Seaway pipeline was completed so that it now runs south from Cushing to the Gulf Coast. Initial capacity of 150,000 bpd in the reversed direction was increased to 400,000 bpd in January 2013 by adding pumping capacity. The owners of the pipeline are also twinning it, adding another 450,000 bpd of capacity for a total of 850,000 bpd. Construction on TransCanada’s Gulf Coast Project is proceeding. The TransCanada Gulf Coast Project is the renamed southern segment of the previous Keystone XL pipeline project. While originally a single permit application, the project always comprised two separate potential construction projects, northern and southern, which would add another 830,000 bpd of transport capacity between those locations, again, from Cushing to the Gulf Coast. Just recently, Enbridge and Energy Transfer Partners, LP, announced plans to convert one of three pipelines of the Trunkline system from natural gas transmission to crude oil service, which would allow
transport of up to 660,000 bpd from Patoka, Illinois, to the Gulf Coast area. These combined projects add a total of 2.34 million bpd of new pipeline capacity between PADD 2 and PADD 3 that did not exist when the Final EIS was published.
There are, however, notable differences between the two sets of capacity. The bulk of the
pipeline expansions are designed to move Bakken crude either north or east into the Enbridge
Mainline system (or possibly the existing Keystone Mainline). Thus, these expansions do not
directly move the Bakken crude out of the Midwest (PADD 2). Rather, they are reliant on
expansions to additional lines, generally either south to the Gulf Coast or east to eastern PADD 2
and eastern Canada to move the Bakken crude to additional markets. In contrast, the rail
takeaway systems have been set up primarily to move Bakken crude directly to coastal markets.
Only one new unit train terminal has been built inland with access to Cushing: the terminal at
Stroud, Oklahoma. Conversely, unit train off-loading capacity on the Gulf Coast is estimated to
be more than 600,000 bpd by early 2013. This encompasses capacity for both light and heavy
crudes. Gulf Coast off-loading capacity is projected to be exceeded, however, by the U.S. East
Coast off-loading capacity. Off-loading capacity on the U.S. East Coast was minimal in early
2012, but is projected to reach over 800,000 bpd by the end of 2013. Moreover, an additional
70,000 bpd of off-loading capacity is available in New Brunswick, Canada. Finally, rail
off-loading capacity in Washington and California is expected to reach 135,000 bpd during 2013.