Hi Bob.......yes, it seems most people do have to apply for A and B. A has no costs (hospitalization) and B is for physicians, tests, etc. In my research, it seems the federal retirees can only apply for A and not B, and use their federal insurance as the primary. It seemed that way though I didn't spend much time since it didn't seem to pertain to me. It's B that costs so much money. I'm not sure how the railroad retirement or teacher's retirement systems work, exactly. I know they are very different. I do know that everyone is not the same. Quite frankly, I'm worn out just trying to figure this all out. I don't feel there was enough information available to us to work through this, but maybe I just didn't know where to look.