Given its hazy nature, goodwill is designated as an intangible asset. It is a blanket term that represents, in one lump sum, the value of brand names, patents, customer base loyalty, competitive position, R&D and other hard-to-price assets a company might own. It encompasses all the factors above and beyond book value that make investors willing to buy a business.
Intangible Assets 9,750,000
If a company is worth more than its tangible assets, it could be because the owners have been able to add value in less tangible ways. For instance, the bulk of Coca-Cola's share value is not in its bottling plants, but in the brand name that the company has built up over many years. Or think of Microsoft, with much of its value coming from its near-monopoly position in PC software.
It's very easy to explain. Goodwill is a financially engineered accounting entry to "bury" shi+ the CFO has no other way to double-enter. In the case of CVS it appears the "goodwill" is the difference between the actual value of the Caremark assets which CVS acquired and the absurd premium that CVS actually paid to get into the PBM business.