What was the date of the article? It seems very improbable that it would have much to do with Inovio based upon their cervical cancer clinical trial. The FDA would not allow that trial if the basic "neutral" (no adverse effects) data were not part of the IND file. Incidentally, mucosal surfaces have their own local immune systems - eyes, lungs, G-I tract, urogenital tract, etc.
Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2013 Jun 11;9(10). [Epub ahead of print]
Electroporation mediated DNA vaccination directly to a mucosal surface results in improved immune responses.
Kichaev G, Mendoza JM, Amante D, Smith TR, McCoy JR, Sardesai NY, Broderick KE.
Inovio Pharmaceuticals Inc.;Blue Bell, PA USA.
In vivo electroporation (EP) has been shown to be a highly efficient non-viral method for enhancing DNA vaccine delivery and immunogenicity, when the site of immunization is the skin or muscle of animals and humans. However, the route of entry for many microbial pathogens is via the mucosal surfaces of the human body. We have previously reported on minimally invasive, surface and contactless EP devices for enhanced DNA delivery to dermal tissue. Robust antibody responses were induced following vaccine delivery in several tested animal models using these devices. Here, we investigated extending the modality of the surface device to efficiently deliver DNA vaccines to mucosal tissue. Initially, we demonstrated reporter gene expression in the epithelial layer of buccal mucosa in a guinea pig model. There was minimal tissue damage in guinea pig mucosal tissue resulting from EP. Delivery of a DNA vaccine encoding influenza virus nucleoprotein (NP) of influenza H1N1 elicited robust and sustained systemic IgG antibody responses following EP-enhanced delivery in the mucosa. Upon further analysis, IgA antibody responses were detected in vaginal washes and sustained cellular immune responses were detected in animals immunized at the oral mucosa with the surface EP device. This data confirms that DNA delivery and EP targeting mucosal tissue directly results in both robust and sustainable humoral as well as cellular immune responses without tissue damage. These responses are seen both in the mucosa and systemically in the blood. Direct DNA vaccine delivery enhanced by EP in mucosa may have important clinical applications for delivery of prophylactic and therapeutic DNA vaccines against diseases such as HIV, HPV and pneumonia that enter at mucosal sites and require both cellular and humoral immune responses for protection.
DNA vaccine, direct mucosal, electroporation, intradermal
PMID: 23954979 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]