Tile: "Systemic RNA delivery to dendritic cells exploits antiviral defence for cancer immunotherapy"
Lymphoid organs, in which antigen presenting cells (APCs) are in close proximity to T cells, are the ideal microenvironment for efficient priming and amplification of T-cell responses1. However, the systemic delivery of vaccine antigens into dendritic cells (DCs) is hampered by various technical challenges. Here we show that DCs can be targeted precisely and effectively in vivo using intravenously administered RNA-lipoplexes (RNA-LPX) based on well-known lipid carriers by optimally adjusting net charge, without the need for functionalization of particles with molecular ligands. The LPX protects RNA from extracellular ribonucleases and mediates its efficient uptake and expression of the encoded antigen by DC populations and macrophages in various lymphoid compartments. RNA-LPX triggers interferon-α (IFNα) release by plasmacytoid DCs and macrophages. Consequently, DC maturation in situ and inflammatory immune mechanisms reminiscent of those in the early systemic phase of viral infection are activated2. We show that RNA-LPX encoding viral or mutant neo-antigens or endogenous self-antigens induce strong effector and memory T-cell responses, and mediate potent IFNα-dependent rejection of progressive tumours. A phase I dose-escalation trial testing RNA-LPX that encode shared tumour antigens is ongoing. In the first three melanoma patients treated at a low-dose level, IFNα and strong antigen-specific T-cell responses were induced, supporting the identified mode of action and potency. As any polypeptide-based antigen can be encoded as RNA3, 4, RNA-LPX represent a universally applicable vaccine class for systemic DC targeting and synchronized induction of both highly potent adaptive as well as type-I-IFN-mediated innate immune mechanisms for cancer immunotherapy.
ARAMCO going to buy MPC and all the other refiners after their $2T IPO. Then they will unveil the new technology of converting water to wine.
Gild is probably the best liver disease company in the world. I think they should start selling drugs for schistosomiasis just to cover the base. As long as it's a break even venture adding schistosomiasis increases Cilead's profile and creates goodwill...
sears has to be the most screwed up company in the US. They are stupid and lazy. Case in point: I wanted new ignition for sears tractor part no. 163968. I go to sears web site and they tell me this part is unavailable....I go to ebay and there are 24 parts available for 163968....Sears is such a zombie company they haven't linked their web site to direct order and ship vendors who sell replacement parts for their products. The part they told me is unavailable is available..It's just unavailable on sears.com and sears isn't making any effort to capture the revenue...I paid $17 for the part....sears could have linked me to an outside vendor and sold it to me for $22.50....what a bunch of lazy bums.
Billions in value for air?
Branch into solar hot water and space heating for homes. New California initative for solar hot water....Florida wide open with almost no homes using sun for hot water.
that's my advice
I am neither long or short.....I do have a problem with the FDA approving drugs without adequate testing to determine their efficacy. If there isn't credible data it shouldn't be on the market.
that's the line being spewed on cnbc by Cramer and Co.
low interest rates now the subject of discussion - Hey geniuses they people controlling interest rates are the ones with all the debt! Duh! If rates rise governments go broke and social services end.
P.T. say he ate 3 candy bars yesterday andf coke's not a bad thing because it only has as much sugar as 1 candy bar! Sorry P.T., but I don't believe you ate 3 candy bars yesterday. I'm beginning to see you as a real B.S. artist.