n biology, explant culture is a technique used for the isolation of cells from a piece or pieces of tissue. Tissue harvested in this manner is called an explant. It can be a portion of the shoot, leaves, or some cells from a plant, or can be any part of the tissue from an animal, or from umblical cord tissue.
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Stem Cells International
Volume 2013, Article ID 916837, 10 pages
Received 20 December 2012; Accepted 19 April 2013
Academic Editor: Pranela Rameshwar
Copyright © 2013 Lucio Barile et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License,
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Cardiospheres (CSs) are self-assembling multicellular clusters from the cellular outgrowth from cardiac explants cultured in
nonadhesive substrates. They contain a core of primitive, proliferating cells, and an outer layer of mesenchymal/stromal cells and
differentiating cells that express cardiomyocyte proteins and connexin 43. Because CSs contain both primitive cells and committed
progenitors for the three major cell types present in the heart, that is, cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells,
and because they are derived from percutaneous endomyocardial biopsies, they represent an attractive cell source for cardiac
regeneration. In preclinical studies, CS-derived cells (CDCs) delivered to infarcted hearts resulted in improved cardiac function.
CDCs have been tested safely in an initial phase-1 clinical trial in patients after myocardial infarction. Whether or not CDCs are
superior to purified populations, for example, c-kit+ cardiac stem cells, or to gene therapy approaches for cardiac regeneration
remains to be evaluated.
hofno2003 • Jun 10, 2016 4:39 AM
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High-density lipoprotein (HDL) and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) can modulate glucose metabolism through multiple mechanisms. This study determined the effects of a novel bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) inhibitor (RVX-208) and putative apoA-I inducer on lipid species contained within HDL (HDL lipidome) and glucose metabolism.
Materials and methods
Twenty unmedicated males with prediabetes received 100 mg b.i.d. RVX-208 and placebo for 29–33 days separated by a wash-out period in a randomized, cross-over design trial. Plasma HDL-cholesterol and apoA-I were assessed as well as lipoprotein particle size and distribution using NMR spectroscopy. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) protocol with oral and infused stable isotope tracers was employed to assess postprandial plasma glucose, indices of insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity, glucose kinetics and lipolysis. Whole plasma and HDL lipid profiles were measured using mass spectrometry.
RVX-208 treatment for 4 weeks increased 6 sphingolipid and 4 phospholipid classes in the HDL lipidome (p ≤ 0.05 versus placebo), but did not change conventional clinical lipid measures. The concentration of medium-sized HDL particles increased by 11% (P = 0.01) and small-sized HDL particles decreased by 10% (P = 0.04) after RVX-208 treatment. In response to a glucose load, after RVX-208 treatment, plasma glucose peaked at a similar level to placebo, but 30 min later with a more sustained elevation (treatment effect, P = 0.003). There was a reduction and delay in total (P = 0.001) and oral (P = 0.003) glucose rates of appearance in plasma and suppression of endogenous glucose production (P = 0.014) after RVX-208 treatment. The rate of glucose disappearance was also lower following RVX-208 (P = 0.016), with no effect on glucose oxidation or total glucose disposal.
RVX-208 increased 10 lipid classes in the plasma HDL fraction, without altering the concentrations of either apoA-I or HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C). RVX-208 delayed and reduced oral glucose absorption and endogenous glucose production, with plasma glucose maintained via reduced peripheral glucose disposal. If sustained, these effects may protect against the development of type 2 diabetes.