Belviq®, an anti-obesity drug that acts on serotonin receptors in the brain, shows signs of dampening the rewarding and reinforcing effects of cocaine in rhesus macaques. Dr. Gregory Collins of the University of Texas Science Center at San Antonio and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System San Antonio is working with Dr. Charles France to determine if this drug could be safely repurposed for the treatment of cocaine addiction.
Belviq®, also known as lorcaserin, is an anti-obesity drug developed by Arena Pharmaceuticals that was approved by the FDA in 2013. It works by activating the serotonin receptor 5-HT2c in the brain hypothalamus to induce satiety. However, activation of the 5-HT2c receptor can also dampen dopaminergic neurotransmission, which has important implications for cocaine abuse. Cocaine leads to the increased release of dopamine in the brain, a neurotransmitter which activates the reward pathways of the brain. Drs. Collins, Lisa Gerak, and France are studying whether the activation of 5-HT2c receptors could counteract the increase in dopamine caused by cocaine, reducing the rewarding and reinforcing effects of the drug. “There have been a lot of preclinical studies looking at 2c receptor agonists and 2a receptor antagonists as phamacotherapies for cocaine abuse but since this one is actually in the clinic it should be pretty easy to repurpose it for a different indication if we can find effects in the lab,” stated Collins.
Finally, the key experiment for lorcaserin was performed. Would treatment with the drug decrease the monkeys’ interest in cocaine? To determine this, Collins and colleagues used a cocaine self-administration assay in which the monkeys were trained to press a lever to self-inject cocaine. Normally, monkeys will respond at high rates to earn injections of cocaine. However, if the rewarding and reinforcing effects of the drug are reduced by lorcaserin, the monkeys should start to reduce this cocaine-taking behavior.
Amazingly, when the monkeys were pre-treated with lorcaserin, their preference for the lever delivering cocaine was significantly reduced. In fact, this effect was consistent over 14 days, suggesting that the monkeys did not develop a tolerance to lorcaserin. In addition, the effects of lorcaserin treatment were also observed with larger doses of cocaine, suggesting that the monkeys were unable to surmount the effects of lorcaserin by taking more cocaine.
This is excellent news for Dr. Collins and the France lab, suggesting great promise for lorcaserin in the treatment of cocaine abuse. As investigations of the anti-cocaine effects of lorcaserin move into human cocaine-abusers, Drs. Collins, Gerak, and France are now beginning to assess the effectiveness of lorcaserin against other stimulants of abuse such as methamphetamine.
Demand, but a group that can buy and sell shares just like you and me. Buy and sell shares at the price they think that is conducive to there bottom line. Where in the hell is the risk in that?
Yes the market is rigged Mr O'Brien.
1. Ground breaking drug gets approved, they run up the stock price just upon approval.
2. Hammer the stock by naked short sells by the millions after approval to wash out retail longs by depressing the price. (Manipulating the true worth).
3. Short as long as you possibly can for as long as you can to tire out the retail longs
4. Accumulate very slowly at depressed prices simultaneously buying up your short positions
5. Continue to hammer the stock with 1/2 true hit pieces (articles) from MF, SA, ZACKS and the like to justify the low share price.
6. Pay webservers like GOOG, and Y@H()() to keep the slanted articles at the top of the readers list like, prime products in the grocery store
7. Continue to accumulate 80% or greater than manipulate the price point upwards.
8. Need examples look at GILD, CELG, BIIB, all over 80% institutional owned.
9. If retail doesn't jump out they will continue to hammer the stock until it is profitable or the push it into bankruptcy
10. LIKE CLOCKWORK!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Your analysis has no merit what so ever. Of the stocks listed none are making any money and have a ton of debit yet their PPS is higher than ARENA's.
Again it's because the hedge funds have the money and the ability to collude to keep the pps extraordinarily low. BOTTOM LINE!
You see over the next 6-12 months profit margins will be diminished significantly by lawsuits.
Longs are not selling at all, and institutions are trying to find real shares to purchase before the news hits the wire.
NASDAQ and GOOGLE both say 236 Million! What are you looking at?
price is $98 p/s.
from 25% to 49%; and the stock price is going down; Market Manipulation at it's best!!!!! OH that's right the banks/institutions set the price.
So, push out retail by artificially deflating the price, scoop up shares as they go lower, then artifically inflate the price to buy more yacths....
That's how this works, got it.....
Funny, these Chogeys boys sell this mess to Congress that there's no collusion going on, yeah right.
I'll keep adding to my 5000 shares that I bought at an average cost of $2.75, I'm already up hoping to adding an additional 5000 by the end of the year.
Just keep paying the interest on that short position, your in whole that you can't get out of.
All I can say is continue paying interest on those shares boys. Retail holding at 50% for the last 3 years easy.
Let's see who owns Stanford and Ashburn fake online news outlets!
Arena Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (NASDAQ:ARNA) has a short ratio of 2.49. Higher the ratio, the more pressurized the stock will be, lower the ratio, lesser the duress on the stock. The short interest has seen a change of -3.06% in the past month. The 3-month change in short interest was measured at -12.21%. The ratio of monthly shorts to total outstanding shares stands at 0.154. The average daily volume for the last 20 days is 17,000,396 shares. The 20-day volume is 6.96% of the total shares outstanding. A low short ratio indicates marginal bearishness while a high short ratio represents excessive pessimism. Bulls led the way in the counter of Arena Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (NASDAQ:ARNA) which ended 3.7% or 0.16 points higher. During the day, every dip till $4.34 was used to accumulate the stock which last traded at $4.48. The close is near the highest level of the day, i.e. $4.49 and this is a sign of strong upward momentum. The volume was seen at 4,356,339 shares. The counter had ended the previous session at $4.32. The 52-week high of the shares is $7.36 and the 52-week low is $3.26. The company has 244,322,000 outstanding shares and the market cap stands at $1,095 million
7Million Shares. Let me guess they where buying them to short them. COME ON MAN!!!!!!!!!!
Accept your demise. you shorted @ $4 and now you're stuck!!!! That's why you're here every single day trying to nickel and dime your way back to the up side.
How said. They still can get the longs 50% ownership in this company. TOO FUNNY!!!!!!
It amazes me that you're even still here. Go look at the NASDAQ website buddy. I believe institutions have accumulated an additional 4 Million shares from Septembers reporting period and the short interest has decreased approximately the same amount.
You and you short buddies have been on this board daily trying to get longs to sell. You should be on the TV show; what do they call it, YEAH THE BIGGEST LOSER!