We know you are not smart enough to read and understand that so let me boil it down for you
The concentration of CO2 is relatively constant through the troposphere
guess science and third grade were to tuff for you.
Mikie we reviewed this science for you once before apparently you are incapable of learning, not surprising you are wrong.
The thing that controls the vertical concentration of gases is not their weight but the adiabatic temperature. If weight were the controlling factor then the mixing ratio of water vapor would be constant up to the homopause, which it isn't. In contrast, the mixing ratio of CO2 is relatively constant through the atmosphere (see reference link) up to very high altitudes.
The difference is that CO2 sublimes at -79 C while water boils at 100 C and freezes at 0 C. This means that while the partial pressure of CO2 follows PV=nRT for its temperature dependence up to very high altitudes, the partial pressure of H2O is set by the vapor pressure of water (if above 0 C) and the sublimation pressure of ice (if below 0 C). Since the major gases in the atmosphere except water and CO2 all go as PV=nRT, their mixing ratios are constant with altitude. The equilibrium vapor pressure of water decreases with altitude (because temperature decreases with altitude and so does the vapor pressure/sublimation pressure) so its mixing ratio decreases. (see note below)
I know nobody is going to like/understand this explanation, but it is correct whereas appeals to molecular weight are wrong.
The latitudinal responses are more or less correct, more CO2 is produced in the northern hemisphere so there is a gradient from north to south. I'm only taking issue with the people talking about vertical gradients in atmospheric CO2.
note: This is also why statements to the effect that water vapor is more important as a greenhouse gas are simplistic in terms of a CO2-induced radiative forcing. The concentration of CO2 is relatively constant through the troposphere whereas H2O decreases rapidly. CO2 longwave effects are most important at altitude, where the H2O mixing ratio is much lower than near the surface.
Funny Larry I didn't know they were running for POTUS.
Funny how FAUX teases you with their constantly crying wolf. LOL
see Mikey here is a glimpse at reality for you.
Conservative media are likening Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton's email use as secretary of state to retired Gen. David Petraeus' illegal mishandling of confidential information, claiming a "double standard" because Petraeus was convicted of a misdemeanor, while Clinton is not under criminal investigation. But that comparison ignores the central fact that Petraeus knowingly handed over classified materials to his biographer, while Clinton followed State Department rules concerning private email use and was unaware of any classified information in her unmarked email correspondence.
well of course not Mikey WOLF!!!!! Petraeus was convicted of giving classified information to a reporter (his squeeze), you know in the real world. But you tea billies rarely get a story straight.
The long-term answer is obvious. Adopt a single-payer system like Canada's. Not socialized medicine. Doctors would remain private. By cutting out the bureaucracy, needless lawsuits, and curbing greed, the US could save 50% of the monies now being squandered, more than enough to cover the 50 million uninsured, according to a General Accounting Office and Congressional Budget Office report.
Ironically, we already have a successful single-payer healthcare program. Medicare, which covers people over 65, has an administrative and overhead cost of just 2%. Compare this low figure with the $399 billion spent on administrative middleman services in the free-market sector of health care last year. The simple step of data sharing of medical records could save $140 billion per year according too a recent Federal study.
Critics charge that a single-payer system would lead to a rationing of medicine and long waits. But we already ration medicine, not by need, or efficacy of the treatment, but by how much money you have. If you are rich, you can have all you want. If you are poor, unemployed, self-employed, sorry. 18,000 Americans die each year for lack of care according to the Institute of Medicine.
The right says that single-payer systems have not been adequately tested. But this is an obvious pretext by for-profit interest groups. Single-payer systems have been worked for many decades in 20 countries around the world.
The facts are clear: single-payer systems work and they save money. The Germans, French, Australians, Swiss, and Canadians all benefit from universal healthcare at less than half the cost that Americans pay for an incomplete system. Our for-profit healthcare system is a gambling scheme with the explicit goal of excluding the sick.
everyone has healthcare, much better system then in the U.S.
Figures from the World Health Organization clearly show that The United States lags behind 36 other countries in overall health system performance ranging from infant mortality, to adult mortality, to life expectancy.
20 countries in Europe and four countries in Asia have a better life expectancy than the U.S. If you are a male between the ages of 15 and 59, your chances of dying are higher in the U.S. (140 per thousand) than in Canada, 95, Costa Rica 127, Chile 134, and Cuba, 138.
The U.S. Health system looks especially dysfunctional when you consider how much money we spend per capita on healthcare -- $6,000 plus per year, twice as much as any other country -- and how little we get for it.
Canada spends $2,163 and boasts a life expectancy of 79.8 years, two and a half years longer than the US. Their infant mortality rate per thousand is also better than ours, as is their adult mortality rate.
Switzerland spends about 11% of its Gross Domestic Product on universal health care for all its citizens, while the U.S. (with 50 million uninsured this year) spends 15% of GDP with embarrassing results.
One grand irony, Cuba whose economy has been bankrupt for the last decade -- food shortages, drug shortages, chronic unemployment, etc. -- and which annually spends a miserly $185 per person on health care, has better infant and adult mortality rates than the US, and has a life expectancy nearly equal to ours.
ANKENY, Iowa — Jeb Bush said on Thursday that, as president, he would not rule out waterboarding in interrogations, another instance of how his plans to fight Islamic terrorism have drawn comparisons to his brother’s administration.
Enhanced interrogation techniques, including waterboarding, which were used by the C.I.A. against Qaeda suspects after Sept. 11 attacks, were prohibited in one of President Obama’s first executive orders in 2009.
In Teabillistan the little boy cries wolf every day and every day the tin foil hats grab their pitchforks, LOL
George W. Bush
“There's an old saying in Tennessee — I know it's in Texas, probably in Tennessee — that says, fool me once, shame on — shame on you. Fool me — you can't get fooled again.”
The vast majority of tea billies don't pay any taxes and live off of their social security and veteran welfare.
Here in N.H. you are allowed to choose which primary you vote in. (Your party affiliation is automatically changed to that party but you can change it to independent right after you vote.) The local DNC is telling us that Bill Clinton and Trump agreed Trump would run to destroy the GOP and pave an easy path for Hillary's election. They are busy encouraging independents to vote for Trump.
you know in the real world.
Those estimates all expect a GOP POTUS, $86 will be cheap if the GOP gets elected and invades Iran.