...invest in a company that hasn't made a profit since it went public....AMAZON.
$300 - $400 per share price.
Never had a PE ratio.
Nokia....half billion in profits.....$under $8 per share price.
Think about it.
Exosomes in cancer development, metastasis, and drug resistance: a comprehensive review.
Trafficking of biological material across membranes is an evolutionary conserved mechanism and is part of any normal cell homeostasis. Such transport is composed of active, passive, export through microparticles, and vesicular transport (exosomes) that collectively maintain proper compartmentalization of important micro- and macromolecules. In pathological states, such as cancer, aberrant activity of the export machinery results in expulsion of a number of key proteins and microRNAs resulting in their misexpression. Exosome-mediated expulsion of intracellular drugs could be another barrier in the proper action of most of the commonly used therapeutics, targeted agents, and their intracellular metabolites. Over the last decade, a number of studies have revealed that exosomes cross-talk and/or influence major tumor-related pathways, such as hypoxia-driven epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, cancer stemness, angiogenesis, and metastasis involving many cell types within the tumor microenvironment. Emerging evidence suggests that exosome-secreted proteins can also propel fibroblast growth, resulting in desmoplastic reaction, a major barrier in effective cancer drug delivery. This comprehensive review highlights the advancements in the understanding of the biology of exosomes secretions and the consequence on cancer drug resistance. We propose that the successful combination of cancer treatments to tackle exosome-mediated drug resistance requires an interdisciplinary understanding of these cellular exclusion mechanisms, and how secreted biomolecules are involved in cellular cross-talk within the tumor microenvironment.
Bao Sarkar, Department of Pathology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 4100 John R, HWCRC 740, Detroit, MI, 48201,
PMID: 23709120 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC3843988
Also: from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
Exosomes, tiny, virus-sized particles released by cancer cells, can bioengineer micro-RNA (miRNA) molecules resulting in tumor growth. They do so with the help of proteins, such as one named Dicer. New research from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center suggests Dicer may also serve as a biomarker for breast cancer and possibly open up new avenues for diagnosis and treatment. Results from the investigation were published in Cancer Cell.
"Exosomes derived from cells and blood serum of patients with breast cancer, have been shown to initiate tumor growth in non-tumor-forming cells when Dicer and other proteins associated with the development of miRNAs are present," said Raghu Kalluri, M.D., Ph.D., chair of the department of cancer biology at MD Anderson. "These findings offer opportunities for the development of exosomes-based biomarkers and shed insight into the mechanisms of how cancer spreads."
Don't know If PSTI is involved, but the entire filed is getting noticed.
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Can't buy. it!
Not listed yet for trading on OTC exchange.
You are wrong. Stronger dollar is bad for USA. Less exports.
Good for Nokia however, in one respect: any money earned overseas, will translate into higher earnings because when translated into Euros, they will receive more for their dollars.