But this still means dipping into the coffers, and others have expressed concern about the overall investments needed for G.fast. Point Topic, a market-research company, said "the extra cost will be significant" in a white paper published last year, while noting that it was "not yet clear how much contribution G.fast will be making by 2020."
Clearly, progress has been halting. The industry reached agreement on the G.fast standard in December 2013, and the International Telecommunications Union was expected to ratify it in April, but that now seems unlikely to happen until the end of the year. Alcatel-Lucent expects field trials to follow in 2015, with "volume deployment-ready G.fast products" appearing by 2016. No wonder Point Topic doubts the impact G.fast will have before 2020.