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Demand for Frac Sand and Concrete Drives Scarcity

Sand is formed by erosive processes over thousands of years and, according to a UN Environmental Program (UNEP) report, is being extracted far more quickly than it can be renewed. While the U.S. imports only about 1% of the total sand that it uses, according to the United States Geological Survey, developing countries like China and India have had to import significantly larger quantities to meet the demand created by recent construction booms. The price of sand and gravel has increased dramatically over the last decade, from $7.06 per metric ton in 2007 to $8.80 in 2016.