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BMO Financial Group Reports Strong Net Income for the First Quarter of 2013

TORONTO, ONTARIO--(Marketwire - Feb. 26, 2013) - BMO Financial Group (BMO.TO)(BMO) and Bank of Montreal -

For the first quarter ended January 31, 2013, BMO Financial Group reported net income of $1,048 million or $1.53 per share on a reported basis and net income of $1,041 million or $1.52 per share on an adjusted basis.

"BMO had a strong first quarter, with momentum in each of our businesses and a strong capital position. Looking ahead, we are well-positioned to leverage our North American platform and deliver sustained earnings growth," said Bill Downe, President and Chief Executive Officer, BMO Financial Group. "Adjusted net income was over $1 billion for the third consecutive quarter.

"With our U.S. retail platform consolidated under the BMO Harris Bank brand - supported by our largest U.S. advertising campaign to date - P&C U.S. posted good net income growth and good total loan growth.

"In the quarter, we demonstrated continued momentum in commercial banking on both sides of the border. Commercial banking is an important contributor to the performance of the bank, positioning us well in an environment of business expansion.

"As we look ahead to the rest of the year, we will continue our focus on delivering industry-leading customer experience, helping businesses expand and customers control their financial lives - allowing them to make better decisions with better information and have confidence in the choices they make. At the same time, we will maintain prudent risk management and improve efficiency," concluded Mr. Downe.

Concurrent with the release of results, BMO announced a second quarter 2013 dividend of $0.74 per common share, up $0.02 per share from the preceding quarter and equivalent to an annual dividend of $2.96 per common share. The increase in our dividend reflects our strong capital position and the success of our business strategies. 

Our complete First Quarter 2013 Report to Shareholders, including our unaudited interim consolidated financial statements for the period ended January 31, 2013, is available online at www.bmo.com/investorrelations and at www.sedar.com.

(1) Results and measures in this document are presented on a GAAP basis. They are also presented on an adjusted basis that excludes the impact of certain items. Items excluded from first quarter 2013 results in the determination of adjusted results totalled net income of $7 million after tax, comprised of a $79 million after tax net benefit of credit-related items in respect of the acquired Marshall & Ilsley Corporation (M&I) performing loan portfolio; costs of $92 million ($57 million after tax) for the integration of the acquired business; a benefit on run-off structured credit activities of $7 million before and after tax; and a $31 million ($22 million after tax) charge for amortization of acquisition-related intangible assets on all acquisitions. Adjusted results and measures are non-GAAP and are detailed in the Adjusted Net Income section, and (for all reported periods) in the Non-GAAP Measures section, where such non-GAAP measures and their closest GAAP counterparts are disclosed.
   
(2) All Earnings per Share (EPS) measures in this document refer to diluted EPS unless specified otherwise. EPS is calculated using net income after deductions for net income attributable to non-controlling interest in subsidiaries and preferred share dividends.

Note: All ratios and percentage changes in this document are based on unrounded numbers.

Operating Segment Overview

Commencing in the first quarter of 2013, we changed the way in which we evaluate our operating segments to reflect the provisions for credit losses on an actual credit loss basis. The change in allocation methodology enhances the assessment of performance against our peer group. Previously, we had charged the groups with credit losses based on an expected loss provisioning methodology whereby Corporate Services was charged (or credited) with differences between the periodic provisions for credit losses charged to the operating group segments under our expected loss provisioning methodology and the periodic provisions required under GAAP. Prior period results have been restated accordingly. Provisions for the purchased performing and purchased credit impaired loan portfolios continue to be evaluated and reported in Corporate Services.

P&C Canada

Net income was $458 million, up $17 million or 4% from a year ago. Results reflect the combination of good volume growth across most products and the impact of lower net interest margin, together with lower provisions for credit losses. There was year-over-year loan growth of 9% and deposit growth of 4%. Expenses were up modestly, with growth of 1% reflecting good expense management as we continue to invest in our business.

We are focused on making money make sense for our customers, offering simplified products and exceptional customer service. Customers have more options than ever as to how to bank with BMO. We expanded our network by opening or upgrading nine locations this quarter and have continued to invest in our online and mobile banking services. These investments in online and mobile capabilities are making a difference as increasing numbers of customers are using technologies such as eStatements, email and text alerts, online appointment booking and Mobile Paypass. We continue to have top-tier performance in customer loyalty, as measured by the net promoter score.

Personal banking continues to see momentum and improved sales force productivity. We are leveraging the success of our home financing campaigns and offering products that fit the needs of our customers. The average number of products held by our customers continues to grow, as we develop stronger relationships with our current customers and attract new ones. In the quarter, we enhanced our Smart Saver Account by paying interest on every dollar of savings with no minimum required, providing our customers with a competitive offer and an easy to understand product. We also introduced a compelling Tax Free Savings Account offer which is generating strong early results. 

In commercial banking, our sales force is focused on offering solutions, advice and integrated products and services suited to the needs of our diverse commercial customer base. Our award-winning Online Banking for Business platform helps customers manage their businesses more effectively. Customers continue to recognize us with top-tier customer loyalty, as measured by commercial net promoter score. With our ongoing success in these areas, we continue to rank #2 in Canadian business banking loan market share for small and medium-size loans.

P&C U.S. (all amounts in US$)

Net income of $183 million increased $26 million or 17% from $157 million in the first quarter a year ago. Adjusted net income was $197 million, up $23 million or 13% from a year ago due to the benefit of reduced expenses and lower provisions for credit losses. Revenue was 3% lower as higher gains on the sale of newly originated mortgages and increased commercial lending fees were more than offset by the effect of lower net interest margin, a decline in securities gains and lower deposit fees. 

Relative to the fourth quarter of 2012, net income increased 30% and adjusted net income increased 25%. There was quarter-over-quarter growth in average loans as growth in the core commercial and industrial loan portfolio remains strong. This portfolio has increased $3.3 billion or 18% from a year ago with continued quarterly sequential growth. 

We added 131 new commercial relationships during the quarter and continue to look for expansion opportunities into new geographic areas and specialties that align with our growth strategy. Additionally, we added a seasoned team of bankers and launched a franchise finance specialty lending group with the expectation of capturing a portion of this growing sector of the U.S. economy.

During the quarter, we were awarded 16 competitive Affordable Housing Program projects by the Federal Home Loan Bank of Chicago (FHLBC). These projects allow us to support our communities through the development of affordable housing, and also provide us with opportunities to cross-sell our products and services. We were also awarded the FHLBC 2012 Community First Partnership Award in conjunction with the DuPage County Habitat for Humanity. This award recognizes outstanding achievement in affordable housing and community economic development between partnering FHLBC member institutions and non-profit organizations.

Private Client Group

Net income was $163 million, up $59 million or 56% from a year ago. Adjusted net income was $169 million, up $60 million or 54% from a year ago. Adjusted net income in Private Client Group (PCG), excluding Insurance, was $105 million, up $8 million or 8% from a year ago. Results reflect higher revenue, driven by growth in client assets, and focused cost management. The prior year's results benefited from higher than usual asset management revenue from a strategic investment. Adjusted net income in Insurance was $64 million, up $52 million, as revenues improved significantly due to the reduced impact of movements in long-term interest rates in the current quarter relative to a year ago and continued premiums growth in both creditor and life insurance businesses.

Assets under management and administration grew by $44 billion or 10% from a year ago to $479 billion, due to market appreciation and new client assets.

In late January, we completed the acquisition of a Hong Kong and Singapore-based wealth management services provider. Operating as BMO Private Bank in Asia, this acquisition will provide private banking services to high net worth individuals in the Asia-Pacific region, and supports BMO's plans to create a truly global service for wealthy individuals looking to manage their Asian and North American investments.

BMO InvestorLine was named the top bank-owned online brokerage firm in Canada for the second consecutive year in the 14th annual Globe and Mail ranking of online brokers. BMO InvestorLine ranked among the top three leading online brokerages in Canada.

BMO Global Asset Management U.S. received three Wall Street Journal Category King rankings. Its BMO TCH Corporate Income Fund and BMO TCH Core Plus Bond Fund ranked in the top ten in terms of one-year performance in 2012 out of more than 600 funds and its BMO Intermediate Tax-free Fund's one-year performance in 2012 ranked in the top ten out of nearly 400 funds.

BMO Capital Markets

Net income for the current quarter was a very strong $310 million, up $86 million or 38% from a year ago. This performance was supported by our strategy of continuing to operate with a diversified portfolio of businesses and a strong client focus. These factors, coupled with an improving economic outlook, resulted in very good revenue performance in both the investment and corporate banking businesses, as well as the trading products business. In particular, there was good growth in mergers and acquisition activity and higher debt underwriting fees across our North American platform, as well as increases in trading revenue. Revenue increased $129 million or 17% from a year ago to $904 million. 

Demonstrating our success at focusing on core clients, during the quarter BMO Capital Markets was named 2012 Best Equity House, Canada in International Financing Review, a Thomson Reuters publication. This award is a testament to our ability to develop innovative solutions for our clients' most complex problems, while executing at a consistently high standard.

BMO Capital Markets participated in 169 new issues in the quarter including 55 corporate debt deals, 48 government debt deals, 58 common equity transactions and eight issues of preferred shares, raising $57 billion.

Corporate Services

Corporate Services net loss for the quarter was $65 million, compared with net income of $181 million a year ago. The decrease in reported results was significantly larger than the decrease in adjusted results. The difference was primarily due to high revenues from run-off structured credit activities in reported results a year ago. On an adjusted basis, the net loss was $94 million, compared with net income of $20 million a year ago. Adjusting items are detailed in the Adjusted Net Income section and in the Non-GAAP Measures section. Adjusted expenses were $80 million higher primarily due to increased benefit costs including pension costs, the timing of technology investment spending and higher severance costs in the current quarter. Adjusted recoveries of credit losses decreased $72 million to a recovery of $51 million, due to an $83 million reduction in the recoveries on the M&I purchased credit impaired loan portfolio. Adjusted revenues decreased $58 million due to lower securities gains, a higher taxable equivalent basis (teb) group offset in the current quarter and lower revenue from a variety of items, including treasury-related items, none of which were individually significant. 

Adjusted Net Income

Adjusted net income was $1,041 million for the first quarter of 2013, up $69 million or 7% from a year ago. Adjusted earnings per share were $1.52, up 7% from $1.42 a year ago.

Management has designated certain amounts as adjusting items and has adjusted GAAP results so that we can discuss and present financial results without the effects of adjusting items to facilitate understanding of business performance and related trends. Management assesses performance on a GAAP basis and on an adjusted basis and considers both to be useful in the assessment of underlying business performance. Presenting results on both bases provides readers with a better understanding of how management assesses results. Adjusted results and measures are non-GAAP and, together with items excluded in determining adjusted results, are disclosed in more detail in the Non-GAAP Measures section, along with comments on the uses and limitations of such measures. Items excluded from first quarter 2013 results in the determination of adjusted results totalled $7 million of net income or $0.01 per share and were comprised of:

  • the $79 million after-tax net benefit for credit-related items in respect of the acquired M&I performing loan portfolio, consisting of $210 million for the recognition in net interest income of a portion of the credit mark on the portfolio (including $65 million for the release of the credit mark related to early repayment of loans), net of an $82 million specific provision for credit losses and related income taxes of $49 million. These credit-related items in respect of the acquired M&I performing loan portfolio can significantly impact both net interest income and the provision for credit losses in different periods over the life of the acquired M&I performing loan portfolio;
  • costs of $92 million ($57 million after tax) for integration of the acquired business including amounts related to system conversions, restructuring and other employee-related charges, consulting fees and marketing costs related to rebranding activities;
  • the $7 million before after-tax benefit from run-off structured credit activities (our credit protection vehicle and structured investment vehicle). These vehicles are consolidated on our balance sheet and results primarily reflect valuation changes associated with these activities that have been included in trading revenue; and
  • the amortization of acquisition-related intangible assets of $31 million ($22 million after tax).

All of the above adjusting items were recorded in Corporate Services except the amortization of acquisition-related intangible assets, which is charged to the operating groups. 

The impact of adjusting items for comparative periods is summarized in the Non-GAAP Measures section.

Caution

The foregoing sections contain forward-looking statements. Please see the Caution Regarding Forward-Looking Statements that follows.

The foregoing sections contain adjusted results and measures, which are non-GAAP. Please see the Non-GAAP Measures section.

Management's Discussion and Analysis

Management's Discussion and Analysis (MD&A) commentary is as of February 26, 2013. Unless otherwise indicated, all amounts are in Canadian dollars and have been derived from financial statements prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). References to GAAP mean IFRS, unless indicated otherwise. The MD&A should be read in conjunction with the unaudited interim consolidated financial statements for the period ended January 31, 2013, as well as the audited consolidated financial statements for the year ended October 31, 2012, and Management's Discussion and Analysis for fiscal 2012. The material that precedes this section comprises part of this MD&A. 

The annual MD&A includes a comprehensive discussion of our businesses, strategies and objectives, and can be accessed on our website at www.bmo.com/investorrelations. Readers are also encouraged to visit the site to view other quarterly financial information.

Summary Data - Reported Table 1
   
(Unaudited) (Canadian $ in millions, except as noted) Q1-
2013
  Q1-
2012
  % Increase
(Decrease)
vs Q1-2012
  Q4-
2012
  % Increase
(Decrease)
vs Q4-2012
 
Summary Income Statement                    
Net interest income 2,216   2,318   (4 ) 2,145   3  
Non-interest revenue 1,865   1,799   4   2,031   (8 )
Revenue 4,081   4,117   (1 ) 4,176   (2 )
Specific provision for credit losses 178   122   46   216   (18 )
Collective provision for (recovery of) credit losses -   19   (100 ) (24 ) 100  
Total provision for credit losses 178   141   26   192   (8 )
Non-interest expense 2,590   2,554   1   2,701   (4 )
Provision for income taxes 265   313   (15 ) 201   32  
Net income 1,048   1,109   (5 ) 1,082   (3 )
  Attributable to bank shareholders 1,030   1,090   (6 ) 1,064   (3 )
  Attributable to non-controlling interest in subsidiaries 18   19   (4 ) 18   -  
Net income 1,048   1,109   (5 ) 1,082   (3 )
Common Share Data ($ except as noted)                    
Earnings per share 1.53   1.63   (6 ) 1.59   (4 )
Dividends declared per share 0.72   0.70   3   0.72   -  
Book value per share 40.87   37.85   8   40.25   2  
Closing share price 62.99   58.29   8   59.02   7  
Total market value of common shares ($ billions) 41.1   37.3   10   38.4   7  
Dividend yield (%) 4.6   4.8   nm   4.9   nm  
Price-to-earnings ratio (times) 10.4   11.3   nm   9.6   nm  
Market-to-book value (times) 1.5   1.5   nm   1.5   nm  
Financial Measures and Ratios (%)                    
Return on equity 14.9   17.2   (2.3 ) 15.6   (0.7 )
Efficiency ratio 63.5   62.0   1.5   64.7   (1.2 )
Operating leverage (2.3 ) (5.4 ) nm   (1.7 ) nm  
Net interest margin on earning assets 1.85   2.05   (0.20 ) 1.83   0.02  
Effective tax rate 20.2   22.0   (1.8 ) 15.7   4.5  
Return on average assets 0.74   0.81   (0.07 ) 0.77   (0.03 )
Provision for credit losses-to-average loans and acceptances (annualized) 0.28   0.23   0.05   0.31   (0.03 )
Gross impaired loans and acceptances-to-equity and allowance for credit losses 8.98   8.74   0.24   9.30   (0.32 )
Value Measures (% except as noted)                    
Average annual three year total shareholder return 11.8   27.2   (15.4 ) 10.8   1.0  
Twelve month total shareholder return 13.5   5.7   7.8   5.2   8.3  
Net economic profit ($ millions) 318   434   (27 ) 361   (12 )
Balance Sheet (as at $billions)                    
Assets 542   538   1   525   3  
Net loans and acceptances 259   242   7   254   2  
Deposits 351   317   11   324   8  
Common shareholders' equity 26.6   24.2   10   26.2   2  
Cash and securities-to-total assets ratio (%) 30.6   32.2   (1.6 ) 29.4   1.2  
Capital Ratios (%) Basel III   Basel II       Basel II      
                     
Common Equity Tier 1 Capital Ratio 9.4   9.7   nm   10.5   nm  
Tier 1 Capital Ratio 11.1   11.7   nm   12.6   nm  
Total Capital ratio 13.4   14.6   nm   14.9   nm  
Net Income by Operating Group                    
Personal and Commercial Banking 640   600   7   582   10  
  P&C Canada 458   441   4   442   3  
  P&C U.S. 182   159   15   140   31  
Private Client Group 163   104   56   164   -  
BMO Capital Markets 310   224   38   314   (2 )
Corporate Services, including Technology and Operations (T&O) (65 ) 181   (+100 ) 22   (+100 )
BMO Financial Group net income 1,048   1,109   (5 ) 1,082   (3 )
nm - not meaningful
     
Summary Data - Adjusted (1) Table 2
     
(Unaudited) (Canadian $ in millions, except as noted) Q1-
2013
  Q1-
2012
  % Increase
(Decrease)
vs Q1-2012
  Q4-
2012
% Increase
(Decrease)
vs Q4-2012
 
Summary Income Statement                  
Adjusted net interest income 2,004   2,092   (4 ) 1,956 2  
Adjusted non-interest revenue 1,857   1,651   13   1,964 (5 )
Adjusted revenue 3,861   3,743   3   3,920 (2 )
Adjusted specific provision and adjusted total provision for credit losses 96   91   5   113 (16 )
Adjusted non-interest expense 2,464   2,378   4   2,436 1  
Adjusted provision for income taxes 260   302   (14 ) 246 5  
Adjusted net income 1,041   972   7   1,125 (7 )
  Attributable to bank shareholders 1,023   953   7   1,107 (8 )
  Attributable to non-controlling interest in subsidiaries 18   19   (4 ) 18 -  
Adjusted net income 1,041   972   7   1,125 (7 )
                   
Common Share Data ($)                  
Adjusted earnings per share 1.52   1.42   7   1.65 (8 )
Financial Measures and Ratios (%)                  
Adjusted return on equity 14.8   15.0   (0.2 ) 16.3 (1.5 )
Adjusted efficiency ratio 63.8   63.5   0.3   62.2 1.6  
Adjusted operating leverage (0.4 ) (7.6 ) nm   2.7 nm  
Adjusted net interest margin on earning assets 1.67   1.85   (0.18 ) 1.67 -  
Adjusted effective tax rate 19.9   23.7   (3.8 ) 17.9 2.0  
Adjusted provision for credit losses-to-average loans and acceptances (annualized) 0.16   0.17   (0.01 ) 0.20 (0.04 )
                   
Adjusted net income by operating group                  
Personal and Commercial Banking 656   619   6   600 9  
  P&C Canada 461   443   4   444 3  
  P&C U.S. 195   176   11   156 26  
Private Client Group 169   109   54   169 -  
BMO Capital Markets 310   224   38   315 (2 )
Corporate Services, including T&O (94 ) 20   (+100 ) 41 (+100 )
BMO Financial Group adjusted net income 1,041   972   7   1,125 (7 )
(1) The above results and statistics are presented on an adjusted basis. These are non-GAAP amounts or non-GAAP measures. Please see the Non-GAAP Measures section.
nm - not meaningful 

Management's Responsibility for Financial Information

Bank of Montreal's Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer have signed certifications relating to the appropriateness of the financial disclosures in our interim MD&A and unaudited interim consolidated financial statements for the period ended January 31, 2013, and relating to the design of our disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting. Bank of Montreal's management, under the supervision of the CEO and CFO, has evaluated the effectiveness, as at January 31, 2013, of Bank of Montreal's disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in the rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Canadian Securities Administrators) and has concluded that such disclosure controls and procedures are effective. 

Bank of Montreal's internal control over financial reporting includes policies and procedures that: pertain to the maintenance of records that accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of BMO in reasonable detail; provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of the consolidated financial statements in accordance with Canadian generally accepted accounting principles and the requirements of the Securities and Exchange Commission in the United States, as applicable; ensure receipts and expenditures of BMO are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of Bank of Montreal; and provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of BMO assets that could have a material effect on the consolidated financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting can provide only reasonable assurance and may not prevent or detect misstatements. Further, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

There were no changes in our internal control over financial reporting during the quarter ended January 31, 2013, that materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

As in prior quarters, Bank of Montreal's Audit and Conduct Review Committee reviewed this document and Bank of Montreal's Board of Directors approved the document prior to its release. 

A comprehensive discussion of our businesses, strategies and objectives can be found in Management's Discussion and Analysis in BMO's 2012 Annual Report, which can be accessed on our website at www.bmo.com/investorrelations. Readers are also encouraged to visit the site to view other quarterly financial information. 

Regulatory Filings

Our continuous disclosure materials, including our interim filings, annual MD&A and audited consolidated financial statements, Annual Information Form and Notice of Annual Meeting of Shareholders and Proxy Circular are available on our website at www.bmo.com/investorrelations, on the Canadian Securities Administrators' website at www.sedar.com and on the EDGAR section of the SEC's website at www.sec.gov

Bank of Montreal uses a unified branding approach that links all of the organization's member companies. Bank of Montreal, together with its subsidiaries, is known as BMO Financial Group. As such, in this document, the names BMO and BMO Financial Group mean Bank of Montreal, together with its subsidiaries.

Caution Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

Bank of Montreal's public communications often include written or oral forward-looking statements. Statements of this type are included in this document, and may be included in other filings with Canadian securities regulators or the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or in other communications. All such statements are made pursuant to the "safe harbor" provisions of, and are intended to be forward-looking statements under, the United States Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and any applicable Canadian securities legislation. Forward-looking statements may involve, but are not limited to, comments with respect to our objectives and priorities for 2013 and beyond, our strategies or future actions, our targets, expectations for our financial condition or share price, and the results of or outlook for our operations or for the Canadian and U.S. economies.

By their nature, forward-looking statements require us to make assumptions and are subject to inherent risks and uncertainties. There is significant risk that predictions, forecasts, conclusions or projections will not prove to be accurate, that our assumptions may not be correct and that actual results may differ materially from such predictions, forecasts, conclusions or projections. We caution readers of this document not to place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements as a number of factors could cause actual future results, conditions, actions or events to differ materially from the targets, expectations, estimates or intentions expressed in the forward-looking statements.

The future outcomes that relate to forward-looking statements may be influenced by many factors, including but not limited to: general economic and market conditions in the countries in which we operate; weak, volatile or illiquid capital and/or credit markets; interest rate and currency value fluctuations; changes in monetary, fiscal or economic policy; the degree of competition in the geographic and business areas in which we operate; changes in laws or in supervisory expectations or requirements, including capital, interest rate and liquidity requirements and guidance; judicial or regulatory proceedings; the accuracy and completeness of the information we obtain with respect to our customers and counterparties; our ability to execute our strategic plans and to complete and integrate acquisitions; critical accounting estimates and the effect of changes to accounting standards, rules and interpretations on these estimates; operational and infrastructure risks; changes to our credit ratings; general political conditions; global capital markets activities; the possible effects on our business of war or terrorist activities; disease or illness that affects local, national or international economies; natural disasters and disruptions to public infrastructure, such as transportation, communications, power or water supply; technological changes; and our ability to anticipate and effectively manage risks associated with all of the foregoing factors.

We caution that the foregoing list is not exhaustive of all possible factors. Other factors could adversely affect our results. For more information, please see the discussion below, which outlines in detail certain key factors that may affect Bank of Montreal's future results. When relying on forward-looking statements to make decisions with respect to Bank of Montreal, investors and others should carefully consider these factors, as well as other uncertainties and potential events, and the inherent uncertainty of forward-looking statements. Bank of Montreal does not undertake to update any forward-looking statements, whether written or oral, that may be made from time to time by the organization or on its behalf, except as required by law. The forward-looking information contained in this document is presented for the purpose of assisting our shareholders in understanding our financial position as at and for the periods ended on the dates presented, as well as our strategic priorities and objectives, and may not be appropriate for other purposes.

Our first quarter 2013 regulatory capital, risk-weighted assets and regulatory capital ratios have been calculated pursuant to the Capital Adequacy Requirement (CAR) Guideline released by the Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions (OSFI) in December 2012 to implement the Basel III Accord in Canada. When calculating the pro-forma impact of Basel III on our regulatory capital, risk-weighted assets (including Counterparty Credit Risk and Market Risk) and regulatory capital ratios in prior periods, we assumed that our interpretation of OSFI's draft implementation guideline of rules and amendments announced by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS), and our models used to assess those requirements, were consistent with the final requirements that would be promulgated by OSFI. We also assumed that the proposed changes affecting capital deductions, risk-weighted assets, the regulatory capital treatment for non-common share capital instruments (i.e. grandfathered capital instruments) and the minimum regulatory capital ratios would be adopted by OSFI as proposed by BCBS, unless OSFI had expressly advised otherwise. We also assumed that existing capital instruments that are non-Basel III compliant but are Basel II compliant can be fully included in the relevant pro-forma calculations. We have not recalculated our pro-forma Basel III regulatory capital, risk-weighted assets or capital ratios based on the CAR Guideline and references to Basel III pro-forma items referred to these items as previously estimated. In setting out the expectation that we will be able to refinance certain capital instruments in the future, as and when necessary to meet regulatory capital requirements, we have assumed that factors beyond our control, including the state of the economic and capital markets environment, will not impair our ability to do so.

Assumptions about the level of asset sales, expected asset sale prices, net funding cost, credit quality, risk of default and losses on default of the underlying assets of the structured investment vehicle were material factors we considered when establishing our expectations regarding the structured investment vehicle discussed in this interim MD&A, including the adequacy of first-loss protection. Key assumptions included that assets will continue to be sold with a view to reducing the size of the structured investment vehicle, under various asset price scenarios, and that the level of default and losses will be consistent with the credit quality of the underlying assets and our current expectations regarding continuing difficult market conditions.

Assumptions about the level of default and losses on default were material factors we considered when establishing our expectations regarding the future performance of the transactions into which our credit protection vehicle has entered. Among the key assumptions were that the level of default and losses on default will be consistent with historical experience. Material factors that were taken into account when establishing our expectations regarding the future risk of credit losses in our credit protection vehicle and risk of loss to BMO included industry diversification in the portfolio, initial credit quality by portfolio, the first-loss protection incorporated into the structure and the hedges into which BMO has entered.

Assumptions about the performance of the Canadian and U.S. economies, as well as overall market conditions and their combined effect on our business, are material factors we consider when determining our strategic priorities, objectives and expectations for our business. In determining our expectations for economic growth, both broadly and in the financial services sector, we primarily consider historical economic data provided by the Canadian and U.S. governments and their agencies. See the Economic Outlook and Review section of this interim MD&A.

Economic Outlook and Review

The Canadian economy continues to grow modestly, held back by a strong Canadian dollar, elevated household debt and fiscal restraint. In addition, activity in the housing market has slowed in response to tighter mortgage rules and reduced affordability in some regions. Although consumer spending and the housing market are expected to grow moderately in 2013, economic growth should improve in the second half of the year in response to a pickup in global demand. Moreover, business investment should strengthen amid elevated commodity prices and low commercial real estate vacancy rates, extending a recent upturn in business loan growth. The major resource-producing provinces of Newfoundland & Labrador, Alberta and Saskatchewan should lead the economic expansion. The unemployment rate is expected to remain near 7% in 2013 and inflation should stay below 2%. The Canadian dollar is expected to trade close to parity with the U.S. dollar, encouraging the central bank to hold overnight rates at 1% for a third consecutive year.

The U.S. economy is gradually improving. Although real GDP stalled in the latter part of 2012, this weakness was primarily due to a decline in defence spending and a drawdown in business inventories due to Hurricane Sandy. Meantime, strong gains in business spending and residential construction, as well as a pickup in consumer spending, indicate good momentum in domestic demand. However, tighter fiscal policy will likely restrain the expansion in 2013. Although lawmakers averted most of the tax increases that were scheduled to take effect on January 1, 2013, increases in payroll taxes and higher rates on upper-income earners will likely dampen household spending. In addition, widespread cutbacks in federal spending are scheduled to take effect this year, and political uncertainty related to government funding could temper business spending and hiring. However, assuming a resolution of the political issues, business investment and job growth should subsequently strengthen. Together with improved household finances and pent-up demand for housing and motor vehicles, this should encourage stronger economic growth in the second half of the year and reduce the unemployment rate to a five-year low of 7.5%. Despite the improving economy, the Federal Reserve will likely maintain a near-zero interest-rate policy for a fifth consecutive year, and continue to purchase debt securities for some time to come. 

The U.S. Midwest economy is growing at a comparable rate to the rest of the country despite a restrictive fiscal policy, supported by rising automotive production. The economy is expected to gain momentum this year as the housing recovery strengthens, the manufacturing industry benefits from a pickup in global demand and the agricultural industry rebounds from a drought-ravaged year. 

This Economic Outlook and Review section contains forward-looking statements. Please see the Caution Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.

Foreign Exchange

The Canadian dollar equivalents of BMO's U.S.-dollar-denominated net income, revenues, expenses, provisions for credit losses and income taxes were decreased relative to the first quarter of 2012 by the weakening of the U.S. dollar, and were increased by a strengthening of the U.S. dollar relative to the fourth quarter of 2012. The average Canadian/U.S. dollar exchange rate for the quarter, expressed in terms of the Canadian dollar cost of a U.S. dollar, decreased by 1.8% from a year ago and increased by 0.6% from the average of the fourth quarter. The following table indicates the relevant average Canadian/U.S. dollar exchange rates and the impact of changes in the rates. 

Effects of U.S. Dollar Exchange Rate Fluctuations on BMO's Results Table 3
   
  Q1-2013  
(Canadian $ in millions, except as noted) vs Q1-2012   vs Q4-2012  
Canadian/U.S. dollar exchange rate (average)        
  Current period 0.9953   0.9953  
  Prior period 1.0133   0.9894  
         
Effects on reported results        
         
Increased (decreased) net interest income (16 ) 5  
Increased (decreased) non-interest revenue (10 ) 3  
Increased (decreased) revenues (26 ) 8  
Decreased (increased) expenses 17   (6 )
Decreased (increased) provision for credit losses 1   -  
Decreased (increased) income taxes -   -  
Increased (decreased) net income (8 ) 2  
         
Effects on adjusted results        
Increased (decreased) net interest income (13 ) 4  
Increased (decreased) non-interest revenues (9 ) 3  
Increased (decreased) revenues (22 ) 7  
Decreased (increased) expenses 15   (5 )
Decreased (increased) provision for credit losses (1 ) -  
Decreased (increased) income taxes -   -  
Increased (decreased) adjusted net income (8 ) 2  
 
Adjusted results in this section are non-GAAP amounts or non-GAAP measures. Please see the Non-GAAP Measures section.

Other Value Measures

BMO's average annual total shareholder return for the three-year period ended January 31, 2013, was 11.8%. 

Net economic profit (NEP) was $318 million, compared with $361 million in the fourth quarter and $434 million in the first quarter of 2012. Adjusted NEP was $289 million, compared with $380 million in the fourth quarter and $273 million in the first quarter of 2012. Changes in adjusted NEP relative to the first quarter of 2012 were attributable to the combination of increased capital and increased earnings. NEP of $318 million represents the net income that is attributable to shareholders ($1,030 million), less preferred share dividends ($33 million), plus the after-tax amortization of intangible assets ($22 million), net of a charge for capital ($701 million), and is considered an effective measure of added economic value. Adjusted NEP is calculated in the same manner using adjusted net income rather than reported net income and excluding the addition of the amortization of intangible assets. 

NEP and adjusted NEP are non-GAAP measures. Please see the Non-GAAP Measures section for a discussion on the use and limitations of non-GAAP measures.

Net Income

Q1 2013 vs Q1 2012

Net income was $1,048 million for the first quarter of 2013, down $61 million or 5% from a year ago. Earnings per share were $1.53, down 6% from $1.63 a year ago. 

Adjusted net income was $1,041 million, up $69 million or 7% from a year ago. Adjusted earnings per share were $1.52, up 7% from $1.42 a year ago. Adjusted results and items excluded in determining adjusted results are disclosed in more detail in the preceding Adjusted Net Income section and in the Non-GAAP Measures section, together with comments on the uses and limitations of such measures. 

On an adjusted basis, revenues increased by more than expenses, with particularly strong growth in non-interest revenue. BMO Capital Markets adjusted net income was significantly higher due to more favourable market conditions that contributed to strong investment banking and trading revenues. Private Client Group (PCG) results also increased significantly due to improvements in its Insurance results and growth in client assets. P&C U.S. adjusted net income improved from a year ago due to the benefits of reduced expenses and lower provisions for credit losses. P&C Canada's results were higher due to reduced provisions for credit losses and increased volumes across most products, offset in part by lower net interest margin. Corporate Services adjusted results were worse than a year ago, due to a lower recovery of provisions for credit losses on the M&I purchased credit impaired loan portfolio, higher expenses and lower revenues. BMO results benefited from a lower effective tax rate.

Q1 2013 vs Q4 2012

Net income decreased $34 million or 3% from the fourth quarter and earnings per share decreased $0.06 or 4%. Adjusted net income decreased $84 million or 7% and adjusted earnings per share decreased $0.13 or 8%.

Results in the current quarter were lower relative to the fourth quarter due to the $73 million cost of performance-based compensation in respect of employees that are eligible to retire that is expensed in the first quarter of each year, as well as increased employee benefits costs, which are typically higher in the first quarter of the year. On an adjusted basis, there was significant growth in P&C U.S. and more modest growth in P&C Canada, while results in PCG were unchanged. BMO Capital Markets net income was slightly lower due to a higher income tax recovery in the preceding quarter. Corporate Services adjusted results decreased due to lower revenue from a variety of items, including treasury-related items, none of which were individually significant. In addition, there were less favourable recoveries of credit losses, as discussed above, and increased expenses, including higher benefit costs and higher performance-based compensation in respect of employees eligible to retire, which are both typically higher in the first quarter of each year. 

Adjusted results in this section are non-GAAP amounts or non-GAAP measures. Please see the Non-GAAP Measures section.

Revenue

Total revenue decreased $36 million or 1% from the first quarter a year ago to $4,081 million. Adjusted revenue increased $118 million or 3% to $3,861 million. There was strong growth in BMO Capital Markets, as favourable market conditions generated strong investment banking and trading results, and in PCG due largely to higher Insurance results as well as growth in client assets. P&C Canada revenues were unchanged, reflecting the combination of increases in volumes across most products and lower net interest margin. P&C U.S. revenues decreased due to reductions in net interest margin, securities gains and deposit fees, partially offset by increases in gains on sale of newly originated mortgages and commercial lending fees. Corporate Services' adjusted revenues also decreased, due to reduced securities gains, a higher teb group offset in the current quarter and lower revenue from a variety of items, including treasury-related items, none of which were individually significant. The weaker U.S. dollar decreased adjusted revenue growth by $22 million or 1%.

Revenue decreased $95 million or 2% from the fourth quarter. Adjusted revenue decreased $59 million or 2%. There was modest growth across all the operating groups with the exception of PCG, where revenue growth in wealth businesses was more than offset by reduced Insurance revenue. There was reduced revenue in Corporate Services, due primarily to lower revenue from a variety of items, as discussed above. The stronger U.S. dollar increased adjusted revenue growth by $7 million. 

Changes in net interest income and non-interest revenue are reviewed in the sections that follow. 

This section contains adjusted results and measures, which are non-GAAP. Please see the Non-GAAP Measures section.

Net Interest Income

Net interest income decreased $102 million or 4% from a year ago to $2,216 million in the first quarter of 2013. Reported net interest income includes amounts for the recognition of a portion of the credit mark on the M&I purchased performing loan portfolio. Adjusted net interest income decreased $88 million or 4% to $2,004 million. On an adjusted basis, there were reductions in PCG, P&C U.S., P&C Canada and Corporate Services, with an increase in BMO Capital Markets.

BMO's overall net interest margin decreased by 20 basis points year over year to 1.85%. Adjusted net interest margin decreased by 18 basis points to 1.67% with decreases in each of the operating groups. Changes are discussed in the Review of Operating Groups' Performance section. 

Average earning assets in the first quarter of 2013 increased $26 billion or 6% relative to a year ago, including a $3 billion decrease as a result of the weaker U.S. dollar. There was growth in each operating group. The major increases were in BMO Capital Markets, due to increased trading securities as a result of investment opportunities, and P&C Canada, driven by volume growth across most products.

Relative to the fourth quarter, net interest income increased $71 million or 3%. Adjusted net interest income increased $48 million or 2%. There was a strong increase in BMO Capital Markets due to a charge on the termination of a contract in the U.S. business in the previous quarter, as well as increases in PCG, P&C Canada and P&C U.S.

BMO's overall net interest margin and adjusted net interest margin were relatively unchanged from the fourth quarter. On an adjusted basis, decreases in the P&C businesses were offset by increases in PCG and BMO Capital Markets. 

Average earning assets increased $9 billion or 2% from the fourth quarter, including a $1 billion increase as a result of the stronger U.S. dollar. There was good growth across each of the operating groups.

Adjusted results in this section are non-GAAP amounts or non-GAAP measures. Please see the Non-GAAP Measures section. 

 
Adjusted Net Interest Margin on Earning Assets (teb)*  Table 4
 
(In basis points)
Q1-2013
Q1-2012 Increase
(Decrease)
vs Q1-2012
  Q4-2012 Increase
(Decrease)
vs Q4-2012
 
P&C Canada 265 292 (27 ) 268 (3 )
P&C U.S. 421 447 (26 ) 430 (9 )
Personal and Commercial Banking 305 334 (29 ) 310 (5 )
Private Client Group 290 383 (93 ) 285 5  
BMO Capital Markets 59 62 (3 ) 55 4  
Corporate Services, including T&O** nm nm nm   nm nm  
Total BMO adjusted net interest margin (1) 167 185 (18 ) 167 -  
Total BMO reported net interest margin 185 205 (20 ) 183 2  
Total Canadian Retail (reported and adjusted)*** 265 292 (27 ) 267 (2 )
   
* Net interest margin is disclosed and computed with reference to average earning assets, rather than total assets. This basis provides a more relevant measure of margins and changes in margins. Operating group margins are stated on a taxable equivalent basis (teb) while total BMO margin is stated on a GAAP basis.
** Corporate Services adjusted net interest income is negative in all periods and its variability affects changes in net interest margin.
*** Total Canadian retail margin represents the net interest margin of the combined Canadian business of P&C Canada and Private Client Group.
(1) These are non-GAAP amounts or non-GAAP measures. Please see the Non-GAAP Measures section.
nm - not meaningful

Non-Interest Revenue

Non-interest revenue increased $66 million or 4% from the first quarter a year ago to $1,865 million. Adjusting items in non-interest revenue relate to the run-off of structured credit activities, which are reflected in trading revenues. Adjusted non-interest revenue increased $206 million or 13% to $1,857 million. There was a significant improvement in underwriting and advisory fees, primarily mergers and acquisitions and debt underwriting fees. Insurance revenues also improved significantly, due to the reduced impact of movements in long-term interest rates in the current quarter relative to a year ago and business growth. There was good growth in mutual fund revenues and lending fees, with more modest increases in card services and adjusted trading revenues.

Relative to the fourth quarter, non-interest revenue decreased $166 million or 8%, and adjusted non-interest revenue decreased $107 million or 5%. Insurance revenues were lower, and there were also decreases in securities gains and adjusted trading revenues. Other revenue was down from the higher level in the fourth quarter. The above reductions were partly offset by a large increase in underwriting and advisory fees, primarily mergers and acquisitions and debt underwriting fees, as well as improved mutual fund revenues and lending fees.

Non-interest revenue is detailed in the unaudited interim consolidated financial statements. 

Adjusted results in this section are non-GAAP amounts or non-GAAP measures. Please see the Non-GAAP Measures section.

Non-Interest Expense

Non-interest expense increased $36 million or 1% from the first quarter a year ago to $2,590 million. Adjusted non-interest expense increased $86 million or 4% to $2,464 million mainly due to higher employee costs and increased performance-based compensation, given improved revenue. The weaker U.S. dollar decreased adjusted expense growth by $15 million or 1%.

Relative to the fourth quarter, non-interest expense decreased $111 million or 4%. Adjusted non-interest expense increased $28 million or 1%. Adjusted expense includes $73 million of performance-based compensation in respect of employees that are eligible to retire, which is expensed each year in the first quarter, and increased employee benefits costs, which are typically higher in the first quarter of the year. The above were mostly offset by continued cost management initiatives. The stronger U.S. dollar increased adjusted expense growth by $5 million. The quarter-over-quarter operating leverage on a reported basis was 1.8% and the adjusted operating leverage was negative 2.7%. On a basis that adjusts for the current quarter stock-based compensation mentioned above, the quarter-over-quarter adjusted operating leverage was 0.3%.

Non-interest expense is detailed in the unaudited interim consolidated financial statements. 

Adjusted results in this section are non-GAAP amounts or non-GAAP measures. Please see the Non-GAAP Measures section. 

Risk Management

Our risk management practices and key measures have not changed significantly from those outlined on pages 75 to 92 of BMO's 2012 annual MD&A.

Provisions for Credit Losses

In the first quarter of 2013, the provision for credit losses was $178 million and the adjusted provision for credit losses was $96 million. Adjusting items included an $82 million specific provision on the M&I purchased performing loan portfolio. There was no change in the collective allowance for either the M&I purchased performing or other loan portfolios. The adjusted provision for credit losses of $96 million represents an annualized 16 basis points of average net loans and acceptances, compared with $113 million or an annualized 20 basis points in the fourth quarter of 2012 and $91 million or an annualized 17 basis points in the first quarter of 2012. Included in the adjusted specific provision for credit losses is a recovery of $59 million related to the M&I purchased credit impaired loans this quarter, compared with recoveries of $132 million in the fourth quarter of 2012 and $142 million a year ago.

On a geographic basis, specific provisions in Canada and all other countries (excluding the United States) were $128 million in the current quarter, $143 million in the fourth quarter of 2012 and $153 million a year ago. Specific provisions in the United States were $50 million in the current quarter, $73 million in the fourth quarter of 2012 and a $31 million recovery a year ago. On an adjusted basis, there were recoveries in the United States for the comparable periods of $32 million, $30 million and $62 million, respectively.

Commencing in the first quarter of 2013, provisions for credit losses in the operating groups are reported on an actual loss basis, rather than on an expected loss basis. Prior period results have been restated accordingly. Provisions by operating group are outlined in Tables 6 and 13. 

The provision for credit losses in P&C Canada and Private Client Group declined quarter over quarter by $18 million and $9 million, respectively. P&C U.S. provisions decreased by $43 million from last quarter to $32 million in the current quarter. In BMO Capital Markets, the provision for credit losses improved quarter over quarter due to higher recoveries of previously written-off amounts. On an adjusted basis, Corporate Services recovery was $51 million compared with a $115 million recovery last quarter, due to the decline in recoveries related to the M&I purchased credit impaired loans.

   
Provision for Credit Losses  Table 5
   
(Canadian $ in millions, except as noted) Q1-2013   Q4-2012   Q1-2012  
New specific provisions 418   506   412  
Reversals of previously established allowances (82 ) (60 ) (67 )
Recoveries of loans previously written-off (158 ) (230 ) (223 )
Specific provision for credit losses 178   216   122  
Increase (decrease) in collective allowance -   (24 ) 19  
Provision for credit losses (PCL) 178   192   141  
Adjusted provision for credit losses (1) 96   113   91  
             
PCL as a % of average net loans and acceptances (annualized) (2) 0.28   0.31   0.23  
PCL as a % of average net loans and acceptances excluding purchased portfolios (annualized) (2) (3) 0.29   0.39   0.48  
Specific PCL as a % of average net loans and acceptances (annualized) 0.28   0.34   0.20  
Adjusted specific PCL as a % of average net loans and acceptances (annualized) (1) 0.16   0.20   0.17  
(1) Adjusted provision for credit losses excludes provisions related to the M&I purchased performing loan portfolio and changes in the collective allowance.
(2) Certain ratios for 2012 have been restated to conform to reclassified balance sheet presentation.
(3) Ratio is presented excluding purchased portfolios, to provide for better historical comparisons.
This table contains adjusted results and measures which are Non-GAAP. Please see the Non-GAAP Measures section.
   
Provision for Credit Losses by Operating Group (1) Table 6
   
(Canadian $ in millions, except as noted) Q1-2013   Q4-2012   Q1-2012  
  P&C Canada 128   146   155  
  P&C U.S. 32   75   63  
Personal and Commercial Banking 160   221   218  
Private Client Group 2   11   5  
BMO Capital Markets (15 ) (4 ) (9 )
Corporate Services, including T&O (2) (3)            
  Impaired real estate loan portfolio 8   17   19  
  Purchased Credit Impaired Loans (59 ) (132 ) (142 )
Adjusted provision for credit losses 96   113   91  
Specific provisions on purchased performing loans (3) 82   103   31  
Change in collective allowance -   (24 ) 19  
Provision for credit losses 178   192   141  
(1) Effective Q1 - 2013, provisions related to the interest on impaired loans are allocated to the operating groups and prior periods have been restated accordingly.
(2) Corporate Services includes the provision for credit losses in respect of loans transferred from P&C U.S. to Corporate Services in Q3-2011.
(3) Provisions for the purchased performing and credit impaired loan portfolios are reported under Corporate Services.
This table contains adjusted results or measures which are Non-GAAP. Please see the Non-GAAP Measures section.

Impaired Loans

Total gross impaired loans, on a basis that excludes the purchased credit impaired loans, were $2,912 million at the end of the current quarter, down from $2,976 million in the fourth quarter of 2012 and up from $2,657 million a year ago. Included in the amount above at the end of the quarter, were $991 million of gross impaired loans related to acquired portfolios, of which $128 million is subject to a loss-sharing agreement that expires in 2015 for commercial loans and in 2020 for retail loans. 

Impaired loan formations (excluding the M&I purchased performing loan portfolio) totalled $355 million in the current quarter, down from $428 million in the fourth quarter of 2012 and $392 million a year ago. Impaired loan formations related to the M&I purchased performing loan portfolio were $275 million in the current quarter, compared with $359 million in the fourth quarter of 2012 and $232 million a year ago. 

Changes in Gross Impaired Loans and Acceptances (GIL) (1) Table 7
             
(Canadian $ in millions, except as noted) Q1-2013   Q4-2012   Q1-2012  
GIL, beginning of period 2,976   2,867   2,685  
Additions to impaired loans and acceptances 630   787   624  
Reductions in impaired loans and acceptances (2) (459 ) (367 ) (379 )
Write-offs (3) (235 ) (311 ) (273 )
GIL, end of period (1) 2,912   2,976   2,657  
GIL as a % of gross loans and acceptances (4) 1.12   1.17   1.10  
GIL as a % of gross loans and acceptances excluding purchased portfolios (4) (5) 0.80   0.84   1.02  
GIL as a % of equity and allowances for credit losses 8.98   9.30   8.74  
GIL as a % of equity and allowances for credit losses excluding purchased portfolios (5) 5.96   6.18   7.39  
(1) GIL excludes purchased credit impaired loans.
(2) Includes impaired amounts returned to performing status, loan sales, repayments, the impact of foreign exchange fluctuations and effects for consumer write-offs which have not been recognized in formations.
(3) Excludes certain loans that are written-off directly and not classified as new formations ($91 million in Q1-2013; $99 million in Q4-2012; and $104 million in Q1-2012).
(4) Certain ratios for 2012 have been restated to conform to reclassified balance sheet presentation.
(5) Ratio is presented excluding purchased portfolios, to provide for better historical comparisons.
This table contains adjusted results and measures which are non-GAAP. Please see the Non-GAAP Measures section.

Residential mortgage and home equity line of credit (Heloc) exposures are areas of interest in the current environment.  BMO regularly performs stress testing on its mortgage and Heloc portfolios to evaluate the potential impact of tail events. These stress tests incorporate moderate to severe adverse scenarios. The resulting credit losses vary depending on the severity of the scenario and are considered to be manageable.

Market Risk

Total Trading VaR declined slightly over the quarter due to reduced exposure in equity and interest rate risk factors, coupled with increased diversification. Enhanced risk capture was the main driver behind the moderately higher AFS (Available-For-Sale) VaR. The Credit VaR calculation was amended consistent with our Debt Specific Risk model, which has been submitted for approval for use as a regulatory capital internal model. Total Trading VaR and Stressed VaR figures have been restated for October 31, 2012. For Total Trading VaR, the Credit and Interest Rate VaR figures have been restated with general credit risk reclassified from Interest Rate VaR to Credit VaR. Total AFS VaR has been amended to include specific credit risk. Stressed VaR figures have been restated due to new calibration models implemented in relation to the internal model submission.

There were no significant changes in our structural market risk management practices during the quarter. Structural Market Value Exposure (MVE) is driven by rising interest rates and primarily reflects a lower market value for fixed-rate loans. 

Structural Earnings Volatility (EV) is driven by falling interest rates and primarily reflects the risk of prime-based loans repricing at lower rates. MVE decreased from the prior quarter primarily due to lower modelled volatility. EV and earnings exposures under falling interest rate scenarios decreased from the prior quarter largely due to reduced deposit floors. Earnings benefits under rising interest rate scenarios increased from the prior quarter primarily due to wider modelled spreads on deposits and higher asset sensitivity. BMO's market risk management practices and key measures are outlined on pages 82 to 86 of BMO's 2012 Annual Report.

Total Trading Value at Risk (VaR) Summary ($ in millions)* Table 8
   
...
  For the quarter ended January 31, 2013     As at
October 31,
2012
 
(Pre-tax Canadian equivalent) Quarter-
end
  Average   High   Low     Quarter-
end