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Calculating The Intrinsic Value Of Electro Optic Systems Holdings Limited (ASX:EOS)

Key Insights

  • Electro Optic Systems Holdings' estimated fair value is AU$0.91 based on 2 Stage Free Cash Flow to Equity

  • With AU$0.87 share price, Electro Optic Systems Holdings appears to be trading close to its estimated fair value

  • The AU$1.26 analyst price target for EOS is 38% more than our estimate of fair value

Today we will run through one way of estimating the intrinsic value of Electro Optic Systems Holdings Limited (ASX:EOS) by taking the expected future cash flows and discounting them to today's value. We will use the Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) model on this occasion. Don't get put off by the jargon, the math behind it is actually quite straightforward.

We would caution that there are many ways of valuing a company and, like the DCF, each technique has advantages and disadvantages in certain scenarios. For those who are keen learners of equity analysis, the Simply Wall St analysis model here may be something of interest to you.

See our latest analysis for Electro Optic Systems Holdings

The Calculation

We use what is known as a 2-stage model, which simply means we have two different periods of growth rates for the company's cash flows. Generally the first stage is higher growth, and the second stage is a lower growth phase. In the first stage we need to estimate the cash flows to the business over the next ten years. Where possible we use analyst estimates, but when these aren't available we extrapolate the previous free cash flow (FCF) from the last estimate or reported value. We assume companies with shrinking free cash flow will slow their rate of shrinkage, and that companies with growing free cash flow will see their growth rate slow, over this period. We do this to reflect that growth tends to slow more in the early years than it does in later years.

A DCF is all about the idea that a dollar in the future is less valuable than a dollar today, and so the sum of these future cash flows is then discounted to today's value:

10-year free cash flow (FCF) forecast

2024

2025

2026

2027

2028

2029

2030

2031

2032

2033

Levered FCF (A$, Millions)

AU$26.1m

AU$35.5m

AU$3.70m

AU$12.8m

AU$9.59m

AU$7.96m

AU$7.07m

AU$6.56m

AU$6.26m

AU$6.11m

Growth Rate Estimate Source

Analyst x3

Analyst x2

Analyst x1

Analyst x1

Est @ -25.10%

Est @ -16.94%

Est @ -11.24%

Est @ -7.24%

Est @ -4.45%

Est @ -2.49%

Present Value (A$, Millions) Discounted @ 7.1%

AU$24.4

AU$30.9

AU$3.0

AU$9.7

AU$6.8

AU$5.3

AU$4.4

AU$3.8

AU$3.4

AU$3.1

("Est" = FCF growth rate estimated by Simply Wall St)
Present Value of 10-year Cash Flow (PVCF) = AU$95m

After calculating the present value of future cash flows in the initial 10-year period, we need to calculate the Terminal Value, which accounts for all future cash flows beyond the first stage. The Gordon Growth formula is used to calculate Terminal Value at a future annual growth rate equal to the 5-year average of the 10-year government bond yield of 2.1%. We discount the terminal cash flows to today's value at a cost of equity of 7.1%.

Terminal Value (TV)= FCF2033 × (1 + g) ÷ (r – g) = AU$6.1m× (1 + 2.1%) ÷ (7.1%– 2.1%) = AU$123m

Present Value of Terminal Value (PVTV)= TV / (1 + r)10= AU$123m÷ ( 1 + 7.1%)10= AU$62m

The total value is the sum of cash flows for the next ten years plus the discounted terminal value, which results in the Total Equity Value, which in this case is AU$156m. The last step is to then divide the equity value by the number of shares outstanding. Relative to the current share price of AU$0.9, the company appears about fair value at a 4.8% discount to where the stock price trades currently. Valuations are imprecise instruments though, rather like a telescope - move a few degrees and end up in a different galaxy. Do keep this in mind.

dcf
dcf

Important Assumptions

We would point out that the most important inputs to a discounted cash flow are the discount rate and of course the actual cash flows. Part of investing is coming up with your own evaluation of a company's future performance, so try the calculation yourself and check your own assumptions. The DCF also does not consider the possible cyclicality of an industry, or a company's future capital requirements, so it does not give a full picture of a company's potential performance. Given that we are looking at Electro Optic Systems Holdings as potential shareholders, the cost of equity is used as the discount rate, rather than the cost of capital (or weighted average cost of capital, WACC) which accounts for debt. In this calculation we've used 7.1%, which is based on a levered beta of 1.012. Beta is a measure of a stock's volatility, compared to the market as a whole. We get our beta from the industry average beta of globally comparable companies, with an imposed limit between 0.8 and 2.0, which is a reasonable range for a stable business.

SWOT Analysis for Electro Optic Systems Holdings

Strength

  • Debt is well covered by earnings.

Weakness

  • No major weaknesses identified for EOS.

Opportunity

  • Forecast to reduce losses next year.

  • Has sufficient cash runway for more than 3 years based on current free cash flows.

  • Good value based on P/S ratio and estimated fair value.

  • Significant insider buying over the past 3 months.

Threat

  • Debt is not well covered by operating cash flow.

  • Not expected to become profitable over the next 3 years.

Next Steps:

Although the valuation of a company is important, it is only one of many factors that you need to assess for a company. It's not possible to obtain a foolproof valuation with a DCF model. Rather it should be seen as a guide to "what assumptions need to be true for this stock to be under/overvalued?" If a company grows at a different rate, or if its cost of equity or risk free rate changes sharply, the output can look very different. For Electro Optic Systems Holdings, we've compiled three pertinent aspects you should explore:

  1. Risks: To that end, you should be aware of the 2 warning signs we've spotted with Electro Optic Systems Holdings .

  2. Future Earnings: How does EOS's growth rate compare to its peers and the wider market? Dig deeper into the analyst consensus number for the upcoming years by interacting with our free analyst growth expectation chart.

  3. Other High Quality Alternatives: Do you like a good all-rounder? Explore our interactive list of high quality stocks to get an idea of what else is out there you may be missing!

PS. Simply Wall St updates its DCF calculation for every Australian stock every day, so if you want to find the intrinsic value of any other stock just search here.

Have feedback on this article? Concerned about the content? Get in touch with us directly. Alternatively, email editorial-team (at) simplywallst.com.

This article by Simply Wall St is general in nature. We provide commentary based on historical data and analyst forecasts only using an unbiased methodology and our articles are not intended to be financial advice. It does not constitute a recommendation to buy or sell any stock, and does not take account of your objectives, or your financial situation. We aim to bring you long-term focused analysis driven by fundamental data. Note that our analysis may not factor in the latest price-sensitive company announcements or qualitative material. Simply Wall St has no position in any stocks mentioned.

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