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G4S plc UK DK : 2017 Full Year Results

8 March 2018

G4S plc
2017 Full Year Results

G4S Chief Executive Officer Ashley Almanza said, 

"G4S has delivered another year of profitable growth and good cash generation, enabling us to invest in our growth, technology and productivity programmes and, at the same time, strengthen our balance sheet.  The outlook for the Group is positive: our strong market positions, commercial discipline, growing technology-related revenues, positive cash generation and on-going productivity programmes provide substantial confidence that the Group is well positioned to deliver a strong performance over the next three years."

Operational and financial highlights - Core businesses:

  • Profitable growth: PBITAb +4.2% (10.9% ex Middle East & India)
  •  Strong growth in technology-related security revenues: +11.4%
  •  Growing deployment of Cash solutions technology: 19,500 locations +30%
  • Disciplined growth reflected in improving margins: 6.7% (2016: 6.6%)
  • Productivity gains on track: £90m to £100m by 2020
  • Operating cash conversion: 106% (2016: 133%)
  • Financial strength: net debt to EBITDAd of 2.4x (2016:2.8x)
  • Final Dividend +5%: 6.11p per share (2016:5.82p); Full year 9.70p per share (2016:9.41p)

Group results

  Core Businessesa

Constant Rates
Statutory Resultse

Actual Rates
  2017 2016 % 2017 2016 %
Revenue £7,427m £7,195m +3.2 £7,828m £7,590m +3.1
Adjusted PBITAb £496m £476m +4.2 £491m £461m +6.5
Adjusted PBITAb margin 6.7% 6.6% - 6.3% 6.1% -
Earningsc £277m £262m +5.7 £236m £198m +19.2
Earnings Per Sharec 17.9p 16.9p +5.9 15.2p 12.8p +18.8
Operating Cash Flow £527m £633m (16.7) £488m £615m  (20.7)

 a See page 4 for a reconciliation of Group results.
 b Adjusted PBITA is explained and defined on page 30 in the basis of preparation of Alternative Performance Measures.
 c Earnings is defined as profit attributable to equity shareholders of G4S plc. Earnings and earnings per share ("EPS") from core businesses exclude specific and other separately disclosed items, as explained on page 31, and are reconciled to statutory earnings and EPS on page 4.
 d Net debt to EBITDA, identified as net debt to Adjusted EBITDA throughout the rest of the full year results announcement, is an Alternative Performance Measure as defined on page 31 and is adjusted to exclude specific and separately disclosed items.
 e See page 19 for the basis of preparation of statutory results.


G4S STRATEGY AND INVESTMENT PROPOSITION
G4S is the world`s leading, global integrated security company, providing security and related services across six continents.

Our strategy addresses the positive, global demand outlook for security services and our enduring strategic aim is to demonstrate the values and performance that make G4S the company of choice for customers, employees and shareholders. We do this by designing innovative solutions, by delivering outstanding service to our customers, by providing engaging and rewarding work for employees and by generating sustainable growth in returns for our shareholders. These aims are underpinned by the key programmes in our strategic plan:

  • People and values
  • Customer service excellence
  • Technology and innovation,
  • Productivity and operational excellence
  • Financial and commercial discipline

Since 2013, revenues from core businesses have grown by 17%, adjusted earnings per share by 48%, and the Group has delivered operating cash flow of £2.5 billion.  The Group`s strong cash flow has enabled us to invest in growth, pay dividends of more than £700 million and, at the same time, strengthen the Group`s financial position, reducing net debt to Adjusted EBITDA to 2.4x at the end of 2017.

Over the same period we have created innovative new products and services and have greatly improved safety performance for our employees.

To realise the substantial revenue potential inherent in our strong market positions, we plan to continue investing in product and service innovation and in the sales and business development capability needed to maintain a pipeline of between £6bn and £7bn.

Organisation
Our portfolio programme is substantially complete and we now have a more focused business. Over the past four years we have invested in sales, business development, technology and support and control systems and resources. We now have sufficient strength and depth in these areas to enable us to implement the next phase of our organisational development and with effect from 1 January 2018 we have reorganised the group-wide management of our core businesses.

The principal features of this change are:

  • Creation of a Global Cash Solutions division
  • Consolidation of our Secure Solutions businesses into four regions: Americas, Europe & Middle East, Africa and Asia

Our new organisation will enable us to strengthen further our strategic, commercial and operational focus in each of our core service lines. We will continue to build and utilise shared services for the provision of efficient and fit-for-purpose support functions to all businesses and this element of our organisational development has significant unrealised potential.

Business Segments, Service Lines and Regions
The Group has two business segments, Secure Solutions and Cash Solutions, each with a number of key service lines.

Secure Solutions

  • Security Solutions incorporating risk consulting, manned security, software and systems and integrated security solutions
  • Facilities Management (FM): including integrated security and FM services
  • Care & Justice services including custody, health, rehabilitation and transportation

Security Solutions and FM (77% of revenuesa): G4S delivers industry-leading security services and FM in 90 countries around the world. Building on our established security services, we have invested in developing the capabilities to design and deliver integrated security solutions that combine G4S`s people and security technology to offer our customers more efficient and valuable security solutions. This is paying dividends with a growing technology-related revenue base. We believe that the ability to design and deliver technology-enabled security solutions strengthens our customer-value proposition and provides G4S with the opportunity to increase the longevity and grow the value of existing customer relationships, win new business and earn higher margins.

Today more than £2.45 billion (2016: £2.2 billion) of our revenues are derived from technology-related security services and we expect this to continue to grow. Technology-related security revenues are from the sale of security technology (£0.7 billion) and security solutions which combine our people with technology (technology-enabled security £1.75 billion). The global market for security systems integration is estimated to be around $80 billion by 2021b.

Our Care & Justice services (7% of revenuesa), are concentrated in the UK and Australia where we have built significant knowledge and expertise in delivering complex public services. Our strategic focus is on selective, profitable growth and operational delivery. We expect improved cash generation from our Care & Justice services over the next 18-24 months as we continue to be highly selective in bidding and negotiating for new business and as certain legacy contracts expire or otherwise improve.


Cash Solutions

  • Cash in transit, cash processing and ATM services
  • Smart safes and cash-recycling technology
  • Cash-management software and services

In our Cash Solutions business (16% of revenuesa), we provide software, hardware, systems and services that improve the security, control and efficiency of our customers` cash handling. We believe that there is a substantial and valuable opportunity to extend and grow our new products and services within and across our global markets reinforced by the creation of a new Global Cash Solutions division. These new products are being adopted by banks and some of the world`s leading retailers and we expect this market to continue to grow strongly.

At the end of December 2017 we had over 19,500 (2016: 14,600) cash automation locations, a 30% increase, across North America, Europe, Asia Pacific and Africa. Industry research data indicates that the addressable market for smart safes and recycling solutions is around £20-25 billion per annumc.

Financial Outlook
The outlook for the Group is positive: our strong market positions, commercial discipline, growing technology-enabled revenues, positive cash generation and on-going productivity programmes provide substantial confidence that the Group is well positioned to deliver a strong performance over the next three years. To realise this potential G4S is investing in:

  • Sales, technology and new products, services and solutions to support our aim of growing revenues from core businesses by an average of 4-6% per annum.
  • Restructuring and efficiency programmes to deliver recurring operating gains of £70 million to £80 million by 2020, through efficient organisation design and leaner processes. Additional refinancing gains of around £20 million are also anticipated by 2020. A portion of these gains will be re-invested in growth, with the majority expected to benefit the bottom line.

             

We intend to remain soundly financed with average operating cash flow conversion of more than 100% of Adjusted PBITA and a net debt to Adjusted EBITDA ratio of less than 2.5x. Priorities for excess cash will be investment, dividends and, in the near term, further leverage reduction. Following the achievement of the Group`s leverage-reduction target, the directors propose a 5% increase in the final dividend to 6.11p reflecting the board`s confidence in the Group`s performance and prospects. Our dividend policy is to increase the dividend in line with the long-term growth in earnings.

a Results from core businesses are reconciled to statutory results on page 4, and an explanation of Alternative Performance Measures ("APMs") is provided on page 30.
b Physical Security Systems Integration Report, IHS Markit 2017.
c Source: Company research and 3rd party data including RBR, Panteia, Euromonitor International, World Retail Data and Statistics.


GROUP RESULTS FOR THE YEAR ENDED 31 DECEMBER 2017

Year ended 31 December 2017 (at 2017 average exchange rates)
£m Core busi-
nessesa
Onerous
contracts
Portfolio
busi-
nessesb
  Acquisition-
related
Statutory
Restruc-
turing
amortisation
and otherc
Revenue 7,427 119 282     7,828
Adjusted PBITAa 496 - (5)     491
Profit before tax 383 (19) (7) (20) 49 386
Tax (92) 4 (7) 4 (37) (128)
Profit after tax 291 (15) (14) (16) 12 258
Earningsd 277 (15) (15) (16) 5 236
EPSd 17.9p (1.0)p (1.0)p (1.0)p 0.3p 15.2p
Operating cash flowe 527 (13) (7) (19) - 488
 
Year ended 31 December 2016 (at 2017 average exchange rates)      
£m Core busi-
nessesa
Onerous contracts Portfolio
busi-
nessesb
Restruc-
turing
Acquisition-
related
amortisation
and otherc
Adjusted statutoryf
Revenue 7,195 115 617     7,927
Adjusted PBITAa 476 - 6     482
Profit before tax 375 - 1 (13) (52) 311
Tax (90) - (3) 3 9 (81)
Profit after tax 285 - (2) (10) (43) 230
Earningsd 262 - (3) (10) (42) 207
EPSd 16.9p - (0.2)p (0.6)p (2.7)p 13.4p
Operating cash flowe 633 (10) 10 (18) - 615


Year ended 31 December 2016 (at 2016 average exchange rates)    
£m Core busi-
nessesa
Onerous
contracts
Portfolio
busi-
nessesb
 Restruc-
turing
Acquisition-related
amortisation
and otherc
  Statutory
Revenue 6,896 112 582     7,590
Adjusted PBITAa 455 - 6     461
Profit before tax 354 - 1 (12) (47) 296
Tax (85) - (2) 2 9 (76)
Profit after tax 269 - (1) (10) (38) 220
Earningsd 247 - (2) (10) (37) 198
EPSd 16.0p - (0.1)p (0.6)p (2.4)p 12.8p
Operating cash flowe 633 (10) 10 (18) - 615

a   Results from core businesses, presented at constant exchange rates other than for operating cash flow, exclude results from portfolio businesses identified for sale or closure and from onerous contracts. For the Group`s 2017 results, continuing businesses have been renamed `core` businesses to provide a clear distinction from the Group`s statutory results from continuing operations. In addition, PBITA has been renamed `Adjusted PBITA` to reflect the exclusion of specific and other separately disclosed items set out on page 10. Core businesses and Adjusted PBITA are defined and calculated in exactly the same way as continuing businesses and PBITA were previously defined and calculated. The basis of preparation of results of core businesses and an explanation of Alternative Performance Measures, including Adjusted PBITA, are provided on page 30. 
b   Portfolio businesses that remain part of the Group, having not yet been sold or closed, contributed £158 million revenue (2016: £167 million at 2017 average exchange rates; £155 million at 2016 average exchange rates) and a loss of £9 million to Adjusted PBITA (2016: loss of £21 million at 2017 average exchange rates; £20 million at 2016 average exchange rates).
c  Other includes net specific items (other than those presented within onerous contracts), net profit on disposal/closure of subsidiaries/businesses, the results of discontinued operations and, in 2016, goodwill impairment. The associated tax impact of these net specific items is recorded within the tax charge within "other". In addition, tax-specific charges or credits, such as those arising from changes in tax legislation which have a material impact, and which are unrelated to net specific items, are also included within the tax charge within "other". The full accounting policy regarding specific and other separately disclosed items is provided on page 31.
d  Earnings is defined as profit attributable to equity shareholders of G4S plc. Adjusted Earnings and Adjusted Earnings per share ("EPS") from core businesses exclude specific and other separately disclosed items, and likewise the tax impact of those specific and other separately disclosed items and the impact of tax-specific charges or credits unrelated to those specific and other separately disclosed items, as explained on page 31. Adjusted Earnings and Adjusted EPS from core businesses are reconciled to statutory earnings and statutory EPS above.
e Operating cash flow is defined on page 31 and is stated after pension deficit contributions of £40 million (2016: £39 million) and for the year ended 31 December 2016 is presented at 2016 average exchange rates. Operating cash flow from core businesses is reconciled to the Group`s movements in net debt on page 33. Statutory operating cash flow is net cash flow from operating activities of continuing operations.
The `adjusted statutory` figures represent the comparative 2016 statutory results translated at 2017 average exchange rates (other than for operating cash flow) but should not be considered as or used in place of the Group`s statutory results.


BUSINESS REVIEW
RESULTS OF CORE BUSINESSES BY SERVICE LINE AND REGION

The following Business Review focuses primarily on the G4S plc Group`s ("the Group`s") core businesses, as these represent the Group`s long-term operations, whereas onerous contracts and portfolio businesses do not.  In addition, throughout the Business Review, to aid comparability the 2016 prior-year results are presented on a constant-currency basis by applying 2017 average exchange rates, unless otherwise stated.

RESULTS OF CORE BUSINESSES BY SERVICE LINE

Secure Solutions Revenue Revenue   Adjusted PBITA Adjusted PBITA   Adjusted PBITA margin Adjusted PBITA margin
  2017 2016 YoY 2017 2016 YoY 2017 2016
At 2017 average exchange rates £m £m % £m £m % % %
Emerging markets 2,343 2,277 2.9% 143 149 (4.0%) 6.1% 6.5%
Developed markets 3,875 3,736 3.7% 242 225 7.6% 6.2% 6.0%
Total 6,218 6,013 3.4% 385 374 2.9% 6.2% 6.2%

Our services range from conventional manned security offerings to risk consulting, highly sophisticated security technology, security systems and integrated solutions. We are investing in the resources and capabilities which enable us to innovate and apply technology in the design and delivery of integrated solutions for our customers, and this is reflected in the increasing share of revenue from these solutions. Our technology-related security revenues for the Group grew by 11.4% to £2.45bn (2016: £2.2bn).

Our Secure Solutions business segment also includes our Care & Justice and FM services. Our Care & Justice business is concentrated in the UK and Australia and provides custody, detention, rehabilitation, education and transport services, typically in complex operating environments.

As previously reported, our secure solutions businesses faced challenging trading conditions in the Middle East & India region and this partially offset the good rates of profitable growth in our other markets.  Overall, the Secure Solutions businesses delivered 3.4% growth in revenue and 2.9% growth in Adjusted PBITA.

Cash Solutions Revenue Revenue   Adjusted PBITA Adjusted PBITA   Adjusted PBITA margin Adjusted PBITA margin
  2017 2016 YoY 2017 2016 YoY 2017 2016
At 2017 average exchange rates £m £m % £m £m % % %
Emerging markets 388 414 (6.3%) 55 59 (6.8%) 14.2% 14.3%
Developed markets 821 768 6.9% 105 93 12.9% 12.8% 12.1%
Total 1,209 1,182 2.3% 160 152 5.3% 13.2% 12.9%

Revenues in Cash Solutions grew 2.3% and Adjusted PBITA rose by 5.3%.

The overall growth in revenue and profit was driven by strong volume growth, particularly in our Retail Cash Solutions business in North America, Cash360 in Europe and Deposita in Africa and Asia. At the end of January 2018, we had an installed base of over 19,500 cash automation solutions at retail and banking customers around the world, a 30% increase compared with 14,600 in 2016. The strong growth in Adjusted PBITA in our developed markets reflects the benefits of our systematic restructuring and productivity programmes which have been implemented over the past three years, partially offset by investment in sales and business development.

The robust growth in developed markets was partially offset by the effect of weak trading in our Middle East & India region, where our businesses have been adjusting to the challenging trading environment and where we expect trading to begin to stabilise during 2018.


BUSINESS REVIEW
RESULTS OF CORE BUSINESSES BY REGION

                 
  Reve-
nue

2017
£m
Reve-
nue
2016
£m
YoY
%
Organic
growtha
%
Ad-
justed
PBITA

2017
£m
Ad-
justed PBITA
2016
£m
YoY
%
Adjusted PBITA margin
2017
%
Adjusted PBITA margin
2016
%
 
   
At 2017 average exchange rates  
Africa 457 431 6.0% 6.0% 46 43 7.0% 10.1% 10.0%  
Asia Pacific 736 715 2.9% 2.9% 65 60 8.3% 8.8% 8.4%  
Latin America 693 655 5.8% 5.8% 29 24 20.8% 4.2% 3.7%  
Middle East & India 845 890 (5.1%) (5.1%) 58 81 (28.4%) 6.9% 9.1%  
Emerging markets 2,731 2,691 1.5% 1.5% 198 208 (4.8%) 7.3% 7.7%  
                     
Europe 1,356 1,305 3.9% 3.9% 104 91 14.3% 7.7% 7.0%  
North America 2,006 1,892 6.0% 6.0% 123 115 7.0% 6.1% 6.1%  
UK & Ireland 1,334 1,307 2.1% 2.1% 120 112 7.1% 9.0% 8.6%  
Developed markets 4,696 4,504 4.3% 4.3% 347 318 9.1% 7.4% 7.1%  
                     
Total Group before corporate costs 7,427 7,195 3.2% 3.2% 545 526 3.6% 7.3% 7.3%  
Corporate costs         (49) (50) 2.0%      
Total Group 7,427 7,195 3.2% 3.2% 496 476 4.2% 6.7% 6.6%  

a Organic growth is calculated based on revenue growth at 2017 average exchange rates, adjusted to exclude the impact of any acquisitions or disposals during the current or prior year.

AFRICA

Revenue growth across the Africa region was 6.0%, with growth in both secure solutions and cash solutions. Cash solutions revenue growth benefited from continued strong growth in cash volumes and retail solutions such as Deposita, which uses technology and software to service the retail and banking sectors.  Adjusted PBITA increased by 7.0%.

New and renewed contracts won across the region include manned security, security technology and systems and risk management services work for multi-lateral agencies.

Our sales and business development opportunities in Africa are broad based, covering more than 20 countries and key sectors such as aviation, banking, mining, consumables, telecommunications and oil and gas.

ASIA PACIFIC

Revenue growth in Asia Pacific was 2.9% and Adjusted PBITA increased by 8.3%, reflecting the benefits of our productivity programmes and a favourable revenue mix.

We secured new and renewed contracts across a broad range of sectors including financial services, consumer products and government services in Australia. We won our 100th customer for retail and banking cash solutions in the region in February 2018.

Across the region we have a diverse set of new business opportunities in security, cash management and, in Australia, care and justice services.


BUSINESS REVIEW
RESULTS OF CORE BUSINESSES BY REGION continued

LATIN AMERICA

Our revenue growth across Latin America markets was 5.8%, principally driven by growth in Brazil, Argentina and Colombia.

We improved productivity across the region, particularly in Brazil, and Adjusted PBITA increased by 20.8%.

During 2017, we continued expanding our footprint and leveraging our expertise, winning new contracts in manned security and cash solutions for the banking, retail and mining sectors. We have won and retained US Embassy contracts, renewing the contracts for Barbados, Grenada, Trinidad & Tobago and Colombia and adding Argentina, Paraguay, Saint Lucia, Martinique, Antigua and Peru. The focus on selling Integrated Solutions brought significant improvements for the technology business.

Whilst competition remains robust and wage inflation needs proactive management, demand for our security and FM services is expected to be positive during 2018 and our businesses are well positioned in our key markets.

MIDDLE EAST & INDIA

Revenue in the Middle East & India region was down 5.1% on the prior year as the macro-economic and fiscal environment weighed on trading in the Gulf. As previously reported, our business in India was adversely impacted in 2017 by the effects of demonetisation and by changes to regulatory processes.

Adjusted PBITA was 28.4% lower across the region, reflecting the decline in revenue in businesses with high operating leverage. Our businesses in the region have been adjusting to the challenging trading environment and we expect trading to begin to stabilise during 2018.

EUROPE

Our sustained investment in Europe in sales, technology and service continued to produce positive results, and revenues rose by 3.9% across all service lines. Adjusted PBITA rose by 14.3% in the region, reflecting the compound benefits of revenue growth and successful productivity programmes.

We established a technology academy in Denmark where our growing technology business has become one of our technology centres of excellence, supporting product and service development across the region.

In Cash Solutions, we continued to grow our annuity revenues from CASH360 and won a large new CASH360 contract for one of the largest retailers in the Netherlands, to be implemented from Q1 2018. We have also recently launched a new service in Europe, G4S Pay, which includes an electronic payment module with CASH360 and is in over 400 locations.

We succeeded in winning new security contracts for aviation and retail customers, electronic monitoring equipment, systems security for infrastructure and cash management and we retained some of the largest contracts in the region through successful rebids in the aviation and banking sectors. Our European pipeline has a large number of opportunities across a diversified range of customer segments.

NORTH AMERICA

In North America, our revenues grew by 6.0%, with good growth rates in both our cash solutions and secure solutions businesses.

In Cash Solutions, G4S`s technology-enabled cash management services are now delivered to over 6,900 retail locations across the United States, including over 5,000 in large store formats where G4S has established a market leading position. We are expanding the number of locations in Canada and believe that our retail cash solution offers unique customer value and this is reflected in a substantial pipeline and active pilot programmes.

Our Secure Solutions business produced revenue growth of around 5% as our integrated security solutions continued to find traction in the market place. This rate of revenue growth was constrained as we continued to apply commercial discipline in those market locations facing tight labour conditions. In North America we continue to monitor and manage wage inflation, particularly in Canada following recent minimum-wage increases. Overall in the United States we are managing wage inflation pressure through productivity improvements and commercial discipline, and we believe that increased unit labour costs are encouraging customers to move to our integrated security solutions combining G4S security professionals with technology.  We continue to see good demand for our products and services across the US and Canada.

Adjusted PBITA increased by 7.0%, helped by a favourable revenue mix and efficiency gains, partially offset by the cost of investing in capacity to support our growing integrated secure solutions and retail solutions businesses. 

BUSINESS REVIEW
RESULTS OF CORE BUSINESSES BY REGION continued

UK & IRELAND

Revenue in the UK & Ireland increased by 2.1%, with a solid performance in our core businesses, including double-digit growth in our security technology business. The deployment of integrated security solutions, combining technology and manned security, was instrumental in retaining and expanding a number of our existing contracts and is increasingly relevant in winning new business. We are able to draw on substantial expertise in our UK & Ireland security systems business, supported by product research and development at our UK technology centre.

Revenue from our Care & Justice services and FM businesses was broadly flat as we maintained a disciplined and selective approach to new contract bidding.

Adjusted PBITA increased by 7.1%, reflecting the combination of revenue growth and the benefit of our on-going productivity programmes.

The roll-out of our lean process design for the back-office operations of our manned security business commenced in Ireland in the third quarter of 2017 and we expect it to be implemented in the UK during 2018.

CORPORATE COSTS

Corporate costs comprise the costs of the G4S plc Board and the central costs of running the Group including executive, governance and central support functions, and are slightly lower compared with the prior year.

BUSINESS REVIEW
GROUP COMMENTARY

Summary results of core businesses

        2017 2016 YoY
At 2017 average exchange rates (other than operating cash flow)     £m £m %
Revenue     7,427 7,195 3.2%
Adjusted profit before interest, tax and amortisation (Adjusted PBITAa)     496 476 4.2%
Adjusted PBITAa margin     6.7% 6.6% +10 b.p.
Interest     (113) (101) 11.9%
Adjusted profit before taxa     383 375 2.1%
Taxa     (92) (90) 2.2%
Adjusted profit after taxa     291 285 2.1%
Non-controlling interests     (14) (23) (39.1)%
Adjusted earningsa (profit attributable to equity holders of the parent) 277 262 5.7%
Adjusted EPSa 17.9p 16.9p 5.9%
Operating cash flowa,b 527 633 (16.7)%

a  Alternative Performance Measures ("APMs") for core businesses are explained on pages 30 and 31 and are reconciled to the Group`s statutory results on page 4.
b 2016 comparatives for operating cash flow from core businesses are presented at 2016 average exchange rates.

Revenue
At £2.7 billion, emerging markets revenue increased by 1.5% on the prior year, with growth in all regions except for Middle East & India. Emerging markets represent 37% of Group revenue (2016: 37%). Developed markets` revenues were 4.3% higher than the prior year, with 6.0% growth in North America, 3.9% in Europe and 2.1% in UK & Ireland.

Adjusted PBITA
Adjusted PBITA of £496 million (2016: £476 million) was up 4.2%. This growth reflects the strong performance of the Group in developed markets, improved product mix and the results of our on-going productivity programmes, partially offset by weaker trading in the Middle East & India. Overall, the Adjusted PBITA margin increased to 6.7% (2016: 6.6%) with improvements delivered in six out of the seven regions.    

Interest
Net interest payable on net debt from core businesses was £90 million (2016: £85 million). The increase primarily reflects a temporary increase in gross borrowings (matched by an increase in cash balances) following the issuance of a €500 million Public Bond in November 2016 and a €500 million Public Bond in June 2017 that were used mainly to re-finance the March and May 2017 debt maturities in addition to drawings under the Revolving Credit Facility. Net other finance costs of £12 million (2016: £6 million) increased compared with the prior year due to an additional £2 million relating to discount unwound on provisions, a £2 million charge in respect of overseas tax settlements, and a £2 million indebtedness-related foreign exchange gain recognised in 2016. The pension interest charge, related to the unwinding of the discount in relation to long-term pension liabilities, was £11 million (2016: £10 million), resulting in a total net interest cost of £113 million (2016: £101 million).

Tax
A tax charge of £92 million (2016: £90 million) was incurred on the adjusted profits of core businesses of £383 million
(2016: £375 million) which represents an effective tax rate of 24% (2016: 24%).  The effective tax rate is a function of a variety of factors, with the most predominant being the geographic mix of the Group`s taxable profits and the respective country tax rates,  the recognition of, and changes in the value of, deferred tax assets and liabilities, permanent differences such as expenses disallowable for tax purposes, and  irrecoverable withholding taxes.

Non-controlling interests
Profit from core businesses attributable to non-controlling interests was £14 million in 2017, a decrease from £23 million for 2016, reflecting the non-controlling partners` share of the lower level of profitability of certain businesses in the Middle East & India region.

Adjusted profit for the year (adjusted earnings) - core businesses
The Group generated adjusted profit from core businesses attributable to equity holders (`adjusted earnings`) of £277 million
(2016: £262 million), an increase of 5.7% for the year ended 31 December 2017.

BUSINESS REVIEW
GROUP COMMENTARY continued

Adjusted earnings per share - core businesses
Adjusted earnings per share from core businesses increased to 17.9p (2016:16.9p), based on the weighted average of 1,548 million (2016: 1,546 million) shares in issue. A reconciliation of adjusted profit for the year from core businesses to Adjusted EPS from core businesses is provided below:

Adjusted earnings per share - core businesses  
  2017 2016 at constant exchange rates 2016 at actual exchange rates
  £m £m £m
Adjusted profit for the year 291 285 269
Non-controlling interests (14) (23) (22)
Adjusted profit attributable to equity holders of the parent (earnings) 277 262 247
Average number of shares (m) 1,548 1,546 1,546
Adjusted earnings per share - core businesses 17.9p 16.9p 16.0p

Onerous contracts
The Group`s onerous contracts generated revenues of £119 million (2016: £115 million) for the year ended 31 December 2017. The Group recognised additional provisions of £19 million (2016: £4 million), classified as specific items, primarily related to the anticipated total losses over the next 15 to 20 years in respect of certain UK contracts. It is expected that around 60% of the Group`s total provision for onerous customer contracts of £62 million will be utilised by the end of 2020.

Portfolio businesses
The Group made further progress with its portfolio management programme in the year. This programme has greatly improved the Group`s strategic focus and has also generated approximately £510 million in disposal proceeds in relation to the 38 businesses sold up to 31 December 2017. Disposals in the year include the Group`s businesses in Israel and Bulgaria, its cash businesses in Peru and Paraguay, the US Youth Services business and the UK children`s homes business, generating total gross proceeds of
£166 million. Since the year end, and up to the date of this report, a further three businesses have been sold, generating additional gross proceeds of £9 million. The portfolio programme is considered to be substantially complete at 31 December 2017. Since
30 June 2017 there have been no changes to the portfolio businesses other than the completion of some minor disposals. Going forwards no further transfers into or out of the portfolio businesses will occur.

Restructuring
The Group invested £20 million (2016: £13 million) in restructuring programmes during the year, mainly in the UK & Ireland and Europe regions, as part of the multi-year strategic productivity programme being implemented across the Group, which is now drawing to an end. In addition, the Group incurred non-strategic severance costs of £10 million (2016: £9 million) which are included within Adjusted PBITA from core businesses. Going forwards the Group has announced a three-year plan to 2020 to implement efficient organisational design and leaner processes (see page 3), which is likely to require further restructuring investment.

Acquisition-related amortisation, specific and other separately disclosed items

    2016 at constant exchange rates
£m
2016 at actual exchange rates
£m
   

2017
£m
Net specific items (15) (14) (13)
Net profit on disposal/closure of subsidiaries/businesses 74 5 7
Goodwill impairment  - (9) (9)
Acquisition-related amortisation (10) (34) (32)
Acquisition-related amortisation, specific and other separately disclosed items before tax 49 (52) (47)
Tax charges arising on acquisition-related amortisation and other separately disclosed  items (18) 9 9
Tax impact of US Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (19) - -
Acquisition-related amortisation, specific and other separately disclosed items after tax 12 (43) (38)
Loss from discontinued operations (6) (3) (3)
Non-controlling interests` share of acquisition-related amortisation, specific and other separately disclosed items (1) 4 4
Total acquisition-related amortisation, specific and other separately disclosed items - impact on earnings 5 (42) (37)

BUSINESS REVIEW
GROUP COMMENTARY continued

Net specific items
The net specific items charge of £15 million (2016: £14 million) comprises £6 million relating to the estimated cost of settlement of subcontractor claims from commercial disputes in respect of prior years, and £9 million relating mainly to the settlement of labour-related disputes in respect of prior years in North America and Latin America. Specific items in 2016 included an £11 million charge due to the revision of estimates relating to legacy acquisitions and labour claims in Latin America, £7 million relating to commercial restructuring in Middle East & India, and a net £4 million supplementary onerous contract provision primarily in respect of the Compass asylum seekers contract, all offset by an £8 million credit relating mainly to the recovery of a legal claim in Europe and of certain disputed debtor balances in the UK.

Profit on disposal/closure of subsidiaries/businesses and goodwill impairment
As part of the portfolio programme, the Group realised a net profit of £74 million (2016: £5 million) relating to the disposal of a number of its operations including the businesses in Israel and Bulgaria, the US Youth Services business, the UK children`s homes business and the Group`s cash businesses in Peru and Paraguay. The Group reported an impairment charge in the prior year of
£9 million in relation to businesses that were to be sold or closed.

Acquisition-related amortisation
Acquisition-related amortisation of £10 million (2016: £34 million) is lower than the prior year as certain intangible assets recognised on a number of legacy acquisitions became fully amortised in 2016.

Tax charges arising on acquisition-related amortisation, specific and other separately disclosed items
Tax charges arising on acquisition-related amortisation, specific and other separately disclosed items of £18 million (2016:  tax credit of £9 million) relate primarily to the disposal of subsidiaries in the United States, Peru and Paraguay.

Tax impact of US Tax Cuts and Jobs Act ("US tax reform")
On 22 December 2017, the US tax legislation known as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act was signed into law by the US President and introduced significant changes in US tax laws with effect from 1 January 2018. As this legislation is considered to be substantively enacted as at 31 December 2017, any tax effects of the legislation arising in 2017 have been taken into account.
  
For 2017, the changes in legislation resulted in a separately disclosed one-off charge to the income statement of £19 million arising from the re-measurement and impairment of deferred tax assets due to the reduction in the US Federal tax rate, and from the impairment of foreign tax credits which are no longer expected to be recovered in future periods against foreign source income. 

On the basis of information currently available and from analysis completed since the legislation was enacted, the above are likely to be the most significant impacts for the Group. However, as more detailed analysis and future legislative guidance become available, it is possible that the Group may be further impacted in the current and subsequent years by the legislative changes.

Tax - statutory at actual historical exchange rates

The statutory tax charge of £128 million (2016: £76 million) for 2017 includes a tax charge of £92 million (2016: £85 million) on the adjusted profits of core businesses, as explained on page 9, a tax credit on onerous contracts of £4 million (2016: £nil), a tax charge of £7 million (2016: £2 million) in respect of portfolio businesses, a net tax charge of £18 million (2016: tax credit of
£9 million) in respect of acquisition-related amortisation and other separately disclosed items, and a tax charge of £19 million (2016: £nil) in respect of the tax impact of the US tax reform (see above).

The Group`s statutory tax charge represents an effective rate of 33% (2016: 26%) on profit before tax of £386 million
(2016: £296 million). The effective tax rate is a function of a variety of factors, with the most predominant being the geographic mix of the Group`s taxable profits and the respective country tax rates, profits arising on the disposal of certain subsidiaries being taxed at a higher tax rate, the recognition of, and changes in the value of, deferred tax assets and liabilities, permanent differences such as expenses disallowable for tax purposes, and  irrecoverable withholding taxes.

The higher effective tax rate compared with the prior year is primarily driven by a one-off charge relating to the re-measurement and impairment of US deferred tax assets arising as a result of US tax reform and as a result of profits arising on the disposal of certain subsidiaries being taxed at a higher tax rate.

The effective tax rate on the Group`s statutory profits was also significantly higher than the effective tax rate on the adjusted profits of core businesses, primarily due to two non-core factors. Firstly, the impact of US tax reform, which is excluded from the tax charge on adjusted profits from core businesses, and secondly, as a result of profits arising on the disposal of certain subsidiaries being taxed at a higher tax rate.

Profit for the year - statutory at actual historical exchange rates
The Group reported profit for the year attributable to equity holders of the parent ("statutory earnings") of £236 million
(2016: £198 million) which includes the benefits of improved Adjusted PBITA and the profit on disposal of subsidiaries.

BUSINESS REVIEW
GROUP COMMENTARY continued

Earnings per share - statutory at actual historical exchange rates
Statutory earnings per sharea increased to 15.2p (2016:12.8p), based on the weighted average number of shares in issue of
1,548 million (2016: 1,546 million). A reconciliation of the Group`s statutory profit for the year to EPS is provided below:

  Earnings per share
  2017 2016 at constant exchange rates 2016 at actual exchange rates
  £m £m £m
Profit for the year 252 227 217
Non-controlling interests (16) (20) (19)
Profit attributable to equity holders of the parent (earnings) 236 207 198
Average number of shares (m)   1,548 1,546 1,546
Statutory earnings per share 15.2p 13.4p 12.8p

a Basis of preparation of statutory results is shown on page 19.

Total equity
Total equity at 31 December 2017 was £854 million (2016: £863 million). The main movements during the year were: profit for the year of £252 million (2016: £217 million), other comprehensive losses of £47 million (2016: income of £109 million) which included a re-measurement gain on deferred retirement benefit schemes of £26 million (2016: loss of £169 million) as explained below and an exchange loss on translation of foreign operations and changes in fair value of cash flow hedging financial instruments of
£69 million (2016: gain of £228 million), and dividends paid in the year of £179 million (2016: £162 million).

The significant foreign currency gain of £228 million recognised in the consolidated statement of comprehensive income in the prior year was mainly a result of the weakening of Sterling compared with the US dollar and Euro following the UK referendum result in June 2016. In 2017, Sterling strengthened compared with the US dollar, partially offset by a further weakening against the Euro, resulting in a net foreign exchange loss of £69 million recognised in the consolidated statement of comprehensive income for the year.

Consolidated statement of financial position
Non-current loan notes were £1,486 million (2016: £1,715 million), reflecting the re-classification of certain US Private Placement notes repayable in July 2018 and the €500 million Public Bond repayable in December 2018 as current liabilities, offset by the addition of the new €500 million Public Bond issued in June 2017 and repayable in 2024.

Cash flow, capital expenditure and portfolio management
Operating cash flow from core businesses decreased to £527 million (2016: £633 million), and represents 106% (2016: 133%) of Adjusted PBITA, as the Group reverted to a more customary level of operating cash generation following the particularly strong performance in the prior year. The Group invested £104 million (2016: £107 million) in net capital expenditure and received net proceeds of £156 million (2016: £82 million) from the disposal of businesses.  The Group made no significant acquisitions in the year.

Net cash inflow after investing in the business was £525 million (2016: £567 million). The Group`s net decrease in net debt before foreign exchange movements was £162 million (2016: £222 million).

Net debt
Net debt as at 31 December 2017 was £1,487 million (2016: £1,670 million). The Group`s net debt to Adjusted EBITDA ratio was 2.4x (2016:2.8x). The detailed reconciliation of movements in net debt is provided on page 33 and is reconciled to the statutory cash flow on page 34.

Pension deficit                                          
The Group`s net defined benefit pension deficit recognised in the consolidated statement of financial position for accounting purposes at 31 December 2017 was £381 million (2016: £437 million), or £318 million (2016: £368 million) net of applicable tax in the relevant jurisdictions. The reduction in the net pension deficit compared with the prior year reflects the payment of scheduled deficit repair contributions of £40 million (2016: £39 million) during the year, together with a small increase in the discount rate assumption applied to the valuation of scheme obligations. The Group will pay pension deficit-repair contributions of £41 million in 2018 in line with the agreed contribution schedule. The next triennial funding valuation is due in 2018, following which future contributions will be subject to review and potential renegotiation.

Credit facilities
In May 2017, the Group`s credit rating was re-affirmed by Standard & Poor`s as BBB- (negative). As at 31 December 2017 the Group had liquidity of £1,571 million (2016: £1,692 million) comprising cash, cash equivalents and bank overdrafts of £571 million (2016: £672 million) and unutilised but committed facilities of £1 billion (2016: £1 billion). The Group issued a €500 million Public Bond in June 2017 which matures in June 2024 and pays an annual coupon of 1.5%.

BUSINESS REVIEW
GROUP COMMENTARY continued

The next debt maturities are £44 million and $224 million US Private Placement notes due in July 2018 and a €500 million Eurobond in December 2018. The Group has good access to capital markets and a diverse range of finance providers. Borrowings are principally in pounds sterling, US dollars and euros, reflecting the geographies of significant operational assets and earnings.

The Group`s main sources of finance and their applicable rates as of 31 December 2017 are set out below:

 

Debt instrument/ Year of issue
Nominal
amounta
Issued
inte-
rest rate
Post- hedging
average interest rate
   
Year of redemption and amounts (£m)b  
2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023  

2024
Total
                       
US PP 2008 £44m 7.56% 7.56% 44             44
US PP 2007 US$250m 5.96% - 6.06% 2.20%   107     78     185
US PP 2008 US$298.5m 6.78% - 6.88% 6.90% 154   55         209
Public Bond 2012 €500m 2.63% 2.62% 417             417
Public Bond 2009 £350m 7.75% 7.75%   350           350
Public Bond 2016 €500m 1.5% 2.24%           448   448
Public Bond 2017 €500m 1.5% 3.21%              

421
421
Revolving Credit Facility 2015c £1bn (multi- currency) Undrawn Undrawn               -
        615 457 55 - 78 448 421 2,074

a Nominal debt amount, for fair value carrying amount see Note 18.
b Translated at exchange rates prevailing at 31 December 2017, or hedged exchange rates where applicable.
c £964 million of the original £1 billion multi-currency revolving credit facility matures in January 2022, with the remainder maturing in January 2021. As at 31 December    
  2017 there were no drawings from the facility.  

The Group`s average cost of gross borrowings, net of interest hedging, was 4.1% (2016: 4.1%).

Significant exchange rates applicable to the Group
The Group derives a significant proportion of its revenue and profits in the following currencies. Closing and average rates for these currencies are shown below:

  31 December 2017
Closing rates
Year  to
31 December 2017
Average rates
31 December 2016
Closing rates
Year to
31 December 2016 Average rates
£/US$ 1.3524 1.2964 1.2345 1.3558
£/€ 1.1250 1.1453 1.1705 1.2265
£/South Africa Rand 16.7557 17.3187 16.9500 19.8742
£/India Rupee 86.3531 84.3570 83.8670 91.0371
£/Israel Shekel 4.6951 4.6484 4.7683 5.1912
£/Brazil Real 4.4794 4.1506 4.0165 4.7252

Applying December 2017 closing rates to the results of core businesses for the year to 31 December 2017 would result in a decrease in revenue of 2.0% to £7,280 million (for the year ended 31 December 2016: decrease of 1.9% to £7,056 million) and a decrease in Adjusted PBITA of 1.8% to £487 million (for the year ended 31 December 2016: decrease of 1.9% to
£467 million).

Applying December 2017 closing rates to the Group`s statutory results for the year to 31 December 2017 would result in a decrease in revenue of 1.9% to £7,680m (for the year ended 31 December 2016: increase of 2.5% to £7,782m) and a decrease in Adjusted PBITA of 1.9% to £482m (for the year ended 31 December 2016: increase of 2.5% to £473m).

The weakening of the average Sterling exchange rates compared with the prior year led to an increase in statutory revenue of 4.5% and an increase in Adjusted PBITA of 4.7%. The impact of exchange rate movements reduced the Group`s net debt by
£21 million compared with the prior year.

Dividend
The Board has proposed a final dividend of 6.11p per share (DKK 0.5097).
G4S plc
Consolidated financial statements

For the year ended 31 December 2017

Consolidated income statement (audited)

      2017 2016
  Continuing operations Notes £m £m
         
  Revenue 5 7,828 7,590
  Operating profit before joint ventures, specific items and other separately disclosed items    

482
 

452
   
  Share of post-tax profit from joint ventures   9 9
  Adjusted profit before interest, tax and amortisation (Adjusted PBITA) 5 491 461
  Specific items - charges 6 (34) (21)
  Specific items - credits 6 - 8
  Restructuring costs 6 (20) (12)
  Profit on disposal/closure of subsidiaries/businesses 6,7 74 7
  Goodwill impairment 6 - (9)
  Amortisation of acquisition-related intangible assets 6 (10) (32)
  Operating profit 5,6 501 402
  Finance income 8 16 33
  Finance expense 8 (131) (139)
  Profit before tax   386 296
  Tax 9 (128) (76)
  Profit from continuing operations after tax   258 220
  Loss from discontinued operations   (6) (3)
  Profit for the year   252 217
         
  Attributable to:      
  Equity holders of the parent   236 198
  Non-controlling interests   16 19
  Profit for the year   252 217
         
         
  Earnings per share attributable to equity shareholders of the parent 11    
  Basic and diluted - from continuing operations   15.6p 13.0p
  Basic and diluted - from continuing and discontinued operations   15.2p 12.8p
         
  Dividends declared and proposed in respect of the year    
  Interim dividend of 3.59p per share (2016:3.59p)   55 55
  Final dividend of 6.11p per share (2016:5.82p)   95 90
  Total dividend 10 150 145

G4S plc
Consolidated financial statements continued

For the year ended 31 December 2017

Consolidated statement of comprehensive income (audited)

  2017 2016
   
  £m £m
     
Profit for the year 252 217
     
Other comprehensive income    
Items that will not be re-classified to profit or loss:    
Re-measurements on defined retirement benefit schemes 26 (169)
Tax on items that will not be re-classified to profit or loss (4) 28
  22 (141)
Items that are or may be re-classified subsequently to profit or loss:    
Exchange differences on translation of foreign operations and changes in fair value of cash-flow hedging financial instruments

 
(69) 228
Tax on items that are or may be re-classified subsequently to profit or loss - 22
  (69) 250
Other comprehensive (loss)/income, net of tax (47) 109
     
Total comprehensive income for the year 205 326
     
     
Attributable to:    
Equity holders of the parent    191 305
Non-controlling interests 14 21
Total comprehensive income for the year 205 326

G4S plc
Consolidated financial statements continued

For the year ended 31 December 2017

Consolidated statement of changes in equity (audited)

  Attributable to equity holders of the parent
    Share Share Retained Other   NCI Total
  capital premium earnings reserves Total reserve equity
  2017 2017 2017 2017 2017 2017 2017
£m £m £m £m £m £m £m
               
At 1 January 2017 388 258 (260) 456 842 21 863
Total comprehensive income/(loss) - - 260 (69) 191 14 205
Dividends paid - - (145) - (145) (34) (179)
Transactions with non-controlling interests ("NCI") - - (19) - (19) 3 (16)
Recycling of net investment hedge - - - 24 24 - 24
Recycling of cumulative translation adjustments - - - (42) (42) - (42)
Own shares awarded - - (11) 11 - - -
Own shares purchased - - - (10) (10) - (10)
Share-based payments - - 9 - 9 - 9
At 31 December 2017 388 258 (166) 370 850 4 854
               
               
               
  Attributable to equity holders of the parent
    Share Share Retained Other    NCI   Total
  capital premium earnings reserves Total reserve equity
  2016 2016 2016 2016 2016 2016 2016
 

 
£m £m £m £m £m £m £m
             
 At 1 January 2016 388 258 (174) 201 673 18 691
Total comprehensive income  -  - 55 250 305 21 326
Dividends paid  -  - (145)  - (145) (17) (162)
Transactions with non-controlling interests ("NCI")  -  - (1)  - (1) (1) (2)
Own shares awarded  -  - (5) 5  -  -  -
Share-based payments  -  - 10  - 10  - 10
At 31 December 2016 388 258 (260) 456 842 21 863

G4S plc
Consolidated financial statements continued

As at 31 December 2017

Consolidated statement of financial position (audited)

null
    2017 2016a
  Notes £m £m
       
ASSETS      
Non-current assets      
Goodwill   1,914 1,990
Other acquisition-related intangible assets   9 18
Non-acquisition-related intangible assets     88 86
Property, plant and equipment   395 437
Trade and other receivables   83 101
Investment in joint ventures   20 19
Investments 16 20 12
Retirement benefit surplus 14 80 75
Deferred tax assets 9 240 285
    2,849 3,023
       
Current assets      
Inventories   104 112
Investments 16 42 52
Trade and other receivables   1,416 1,381
Current tax assets   55 61
Cash and cash equivalents 13,16 902 831
Assets of disposal groups classified as held for sale 12 53 151
    2,572 2,588
Total assets   5,421 5,611
       
LIABILITIES      
Current liabilities      
Bank overdrafts 13,16 (284) (93)
Bank loans 16 (8) (16)
Loan notes 16 (655) (677)
Obligations under finance leases 16 (15) (20)
Trade and other payables   (1,262) (1,260)
Current tax liabilities 9 (79) (64)
Provisions 15 (104) (116)
Liabilities of disposal groups classified as held for sale 12 (19) (58)
    (2,426) (2,304)
       
Non-current liabilities      
Bank loans 16 (5) (4)
Loan notes 16 (1,486) (1,715)
Obligations under finance leases 16 (20) (37)
Trade and other payables   (23) (30)
Retirement benefit obligations 14 (461) (512)
Provisions 15 (138)