Today we will run through one way of estimating the intrinsic value of Espey Mfg. & Electronics Corp. (NYSEMKT:ESP) by taking the foreast future cash flows of the company and discounting them back to today's value. I will use the Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) model. Don't get put off by the jargon, the math behind it is actually quite straightforward.

Companies can be valued in a lot of ways, so we would point out that a DCF is not perfect for every situation. If you want to learn more about discounted cash flow, the rationale behind this calculation can be read in detail in the Simply Wall St analysis model.

View our latest analysis for Espey Mfg. & Electronics

### Step by step through the calculation

We use what is known as a 2-stage model, which simply means we have two different periods of growth rates for the company's cash flows. Generally the first stage is higher growth, and the second stage is a lower growth phase. To start off with, we need to estimate the next ten years of cash flows. Where possible we use analyst estimates, but when these aren't available we extrapolate the previous free cash flow (FCF) from the last estimate or reported value. We assume companies with shrinking free cash flow are will slow their rate of shrinkage, and that companies with growing free cash flow will see their growth rate slow, over this period. We do this to reflect that growth tends to slow more in the early years than it does in later years.

A DCF is all about the idea that a dollar in the future is less valuable than a dollar today, so we need to discount the sum of these future cash flows to arrive at a present value estimate:

#### 10-year free cash flow (FCF) estimate

2019 | 2020 | 2021 | 2022 | 2023 | 2024 | 2025 | 2026 | 2027 | 2028 | |

Levered FCF ($, Millions) | -US$0.6 | US$3.2 | US$3.6 | US$4.0 | US$4.4 | US$4.7 | US$4.9 | US$5.1 | US$5.4 | US$5.6 |

Growth Rate Estimate Source | Analyst x1 | Analyst x1 | Est @ 14.67% | Est @ 11.08% | Est @ 8.58% | Est @ 6.82% | Est @ 5.6% | Est @ 4.74% | Est @ 4.13% | Est @ 3.71% |

Present Value ($, Millions) Discounted @ 9.25% | -US$0.6 | US$2.6 | US$2.8 | US$2.8 | US$2.8 | US$2.7 | US$2.6 | US$2.5 | US$2.4 | US$2.3 |

**Present Value of 10-year Cash Flow (PVCF)**= $23.11m

"Est" = FCF growth rate estimated by Simply Wall St

After calculating the present value of future cash flows in the intial 10-year period, we need to calculate the Terminal Value, which accounts for all future cash flows beyond the first stage. The Gordon Growth formula is used to calculate Terminal Value at a future annual growth rate equal to the 10-year government bond rate of 2.7%. We discount the terminal cash flows to today's value at a cost of equity of 9.2%.

**Terminal Value (TV)** = FCF_{2029} Ã— (1 + g) Ã· (r â€“ g) = US$5.6m Ã— (1 + 2.7%) Ã· (9.2% â€“ 2.7%) = US$88m

**Present Value of Terminal Value (PVTV)** = TV / (1 + r)^{10} = $US$88m Ã· ( 1 + 9.2%)^{10} = $36.19m

The total value is the sum of cash flows for the next ten years plus the discounted terminal value, which results in the Total Equity Value, which in this case is $59.30m. In the final step we divide the equity value by the number of shares outstanding. **This results in an intrinsic value estimate of $24.72**. Relative to the current share price of $24.55, the company appears about fair value at a 0.7% discount to what it is available for right now. Remember though, that this is just an approximate valuation, and like any complex formula - garbage in, garbage out.

### Important assumptions

The calculation above is very dependent on two assumptions. The first is the discount rate and the other is the cash flows. You don't have to agree with these inputs, I recommend redoing the calculations yourself and playing with them. The DCF also does not consider the possible cyclicality of an industry, or a company's future capital requirements, so it does not give a full picture of a company's potential performance. Given that we are looking at Espey Mfg. & Electronics as potential shareholders, the cost of equity is used as the discount rate, rather than the cost of capital (or weighted average cost of capital, WACC) which accounts for debt. In this calculation we've used 9.2%, which is based on a levered beta of 1.094. Beta is a measure of a stock's volatility, compared to the market as a whole. We get our beta from the industry average beta of globally comparable companies, with an imposed limit between 0.8 and 2.0, which is a reasonable range for a stable business.

### Next Steps:

Whilst important, DCF calculation shouldnâ€™t be the only metric you look at when researching a company. The DCF model is not a perfect stock valuation tool. Rather it should be seen as a guide to "what assumptions need to be true for this stock to be under/overvalued?" If a company grows at a different rate, or if its cost of equity or risk free rate changes sharply, the output can look very different. For Espey Mfg. & Electronics, I've compiled three fundamental factors you should look at:

**Financial Health**: Does ESP have a healthy balance sheet? Take a look at our free balance sheet analysis with six simple checks on key factors like leverage and risk.**Future Earnings**: How does ESP's growth rate compare to its peers and the wider market? Dig deeper into the analyst consensus number for the upcoming years by interacting with our free analyst growth expectation chart.**Other High Quality Alternatives**: Are there other high quality stocks you could be holding instead of ESP? Explore our interactive list of high quality stocks to get an idea of what else is out there you may be missing!

PS. Simply Wall St updates its DCF calculation for every US stock every day, so if you want to find the intrinsic value of any other stock just search here.

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*If you spot an error that warrants correction, please contact the editor at editorial-team@simplywallst.com. This article by Simply Wall St is general in nature. It does not constitute a recommendation to buy or sell any stock, and does not take account of your objectives, or your financial situation. Simply Wall St has no position in the stocks mentioned. Thank you for reading.*