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The coronavirus pandemic looks a lot different today than it did when it first arrived in the United States. COVID-19 vaccines are available for a large portion of the U.S. population, at-home COVID-19 tests are more widely accessible and new developments in COVID-19 treatments look promising.
Mask guidance has evolved over time as well. States have been lifting mandates across the country and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has loosened its mask recommendations, advising that people use their community's COVID-19 risk level to guide mask usage. However, experts warn not to throw out masks just yet. Masks are still required on public transportation like planes, trains and buses out of an abundance of caution. Cases are rising again in Europe and there’s even a new variant in circulation called “deltacron.”
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Though experts say it’s too early to be worried about the latest variant, the omicron variant is still in circulation and is easily transmissible. Growing evidence suggests that common cloth masks are simply not protective enough against the latest variants of COVID-19 such as omicron. N95 and KN95 masks are advised as they are the most effective masks in blocking respiratory droplets.
Finding and buying legitimate N95 masks isn't as straightforward as purchasing cloth or surgical masks. With limited supplies early on, many manufacturers only offered N95 respirators in bulk for healthcare settings at the beginning of the pandemic. And while they're widely available now, there are a lot of counterfeit masks to sort through.
That said, it is possible for consumers to purchase legitimate N95 masks at a fair price and we're here to guide every step in the process. Here's what you should know when buying N95 and KN95 masks and where you can buy them online.
Why choose N95 masks?
N95 masks have been predominately used in healthcare settings even before the COVID-19 pandemic as a tool to achieve highly efficient filtration against airborne particles. However, as the virus evolves and becomes more contagious, many experts are advocating for the widespread use of N95 masks among the general public.
The argument for wearing an N95 is that it's the gold standard of face coverings. With the proper fit, masks approved by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) can filter up to 95% of particles in the air. When dealing with a respiratory virus like this coronavirus, N95 masks can make a large difference in protection from infection.
Several studies have and continue to explore the efficacy of different kinds of masks, especially as the pandemic continues to evolve. Take this experiment researchers at Duke University conducted last year, testing different kinds of masks against each other to see which mask was the most effective in blocking respiratory droplets. Taking factors like correct fit and environmental variables into account, the N95 masks were the most effective in blocking droplets—99% to be exact. The next best mask? Surgical masks, followed by a double-layered, polypropylene-cotton mask (a.k.a., a cloth mask).
Dr. Sabrina Assoumou, an infectious disease physician at Boston Medical Center, is among the experts recommending upgraded masks: "If you're in an indoor public setting, that's where we recommend that you wear a well-fitted, high-quality mask. With omicron and how transmissible it is, I feel that we should all be moving to wearing a higher quality, better mask."
N95 vs KN95 vs KF94: What to know
You may have seen talk about both N95 and KN95 masks, sometimes—and inaccurately—used interchangeably. At face value, they're similar, and both are rated with 95% filtration efficiency. The main difference between the two boils down to what country or organization certified the standard of quality of the masks. N95 masks are NIOSH-certified, while KN95s—which the CDC notes are the most widely available mask—are manufactured in China and meet standards specific to China. KF94 masks, which provide a unique shape in comparison to N95s and KN95s, are manufactured in Korea and meet the Korean standard requirements.
In 2020, the FDA granted emergency-use authorization (EUA) for some KN95 masks due to N95 masks supply being scarce. However, the FDA has since revoked the EUA of non-NIOSH-approved respirators because some KN95 masks may not necessarily meet U.S. standards in terms of filtration. Even more, the CDC estimates that about 60% KN95 respirators in the U.S. are counterfeit as well as fail to meet NIOSH standards. Because of this gap, it may be best to stick to NIOSH-approved respirators approved by the CDC.
However, some people may prefer KN95s and KF94s for everyday use in non-medical settings. N95s can feel restrictive for some due to their protective layered construction, so a KN95 or KF94 could be a suitable alternative for those who are not comfortable wearing an N95 for long periods of time. "I recently upgraded to using more KN95s —upgrading meaning from either cloth masks or surgical masks—for indoor public settings," says Assoumou. "If you can find a KN95 or KF94 mask, those are helpful because they're just a little more comfortable and tolerable."
What you should know about buying N95 masks
When shopping for an N95 mask, you can check the CDC's list of NIOSH-approved N95 respirators to confirm that the mask you're looking at has been tested and meets NIOSH regulations. All masks we list as "NIOSH-approved" have been cross-referenced with the NIOSH-approved list.
You can choose to wear "industrial" N95 masks that are often sold at hardware stores. "The FDA expanded under emergency uses authorization approval for industrial respirators that are not traditionally used in healthcare settings," Dr. Cassandra Pierre, infectious disease specialist at Boston Medical Center, tells us. You'll still want to make sure that the industrial N95 masks are on that NIOSH-approved list and provide a proper, tight fit on your face.
If you're on the hunt for N95 respirator masks for kids, know that N95s are nearly non-existent in kids' sizes, as parenting staff writer Janelle Randazza reports. The NIOSH only regulates products for adults—so, while an N95 mask might not be an option for your children, protective KN95 or KF94 masks designed for smaller faces or kids are an alternative solution. Many of them are made from the same brands as N95 masks—such as Powecom and WellBefore—and are sold by reputable distributors like Bona Fide Masks and Project N95.
Where to buy N95s and KN95s masks online and in-store
In addition to the free at-home COVID-19 tests, the U.S. government is also distributing 400 million free N95 masks. In the coming days, you'll be able to find these masks at local pharmacies and community health centers, White House coronavirus response coordinator Jeff Zients says.
As for options you can buy right now, the Reviewed team is working hard to carefully vet the PPE products we recommend. As we mentioned, KN95s can be especially hard to buy considering the influx of counterfeit options out there. Reviewed's health and fitness editor, Esther Bell, has ordered KN95 masks from various brands and retailers to better judge the quality and authenticity of the masks. The team will continue to purchase and vet masks, updating the article regularly for new additions.
Here are a few major retailers and trusted online storefronts where you can buy N95 and KN95 masks right now:
Project N95 is a non-profit organization that helps to make PPE—like high-filtration masks—accessible to those who need it. The company goes through comprehensive vetting processes to ensure the distribution of legitimate PPE. Assoumou purchases her KN95 masks from Project N95.
Bona Fide Masks
This brand was formed by the long-standing Ball Chain Manufacturing Company, the world's larger manufacturer of ball chain used to crate dog tags and chains for blinds. In 2020, the manufacturing company created Bona Fide Masks in response to the shortage of PPE in 2020.
We ordered Powecom KN95 masks from Bona Fide Masks ourselves and received what we believe to be authentic KN95s. Some reviews have noted longer-than-usual shipping times for masks bought from Bona Fide Masks, and our order took about two weeks to arrive, which is something to keep in mind if you're looking to acquire masks sooner rather than later.
If you're looking to purchase a KN95 from WellBefore, Reviewed's health and fitness writer Esther Bell recommends opting for the WellBefore KN95 with adjustable straps to ensure the right fit as the mask without straps may be too large for some faces.
The Home Depot
How to tell if an N95 mask is fake
When shopping for an N95, the possibility of coming across counterfeit respirator masks is a reality, especially as demand for these masks continues to surge. "Counterfeit manufacturers are becoming more and more sophisticated," says Jim Churchman, vice president, procurement and supply chain, at Duke University Health System. "As a result, the ability to discern nuances that alert to a product being counterfeit is becoming increasingly difficult."
These masks may look and even feel like N95 masks, but they may not meet the necessary testing and criterion of real N95s. The most important thing to look for to judge authenticity that the respirator has been tested and certified by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). “Both the mask and its packaging should be labeled "NIOSH-approved," says Dr. Stella Hines, associate professor at the University of Maryland School of Medicine.
The CDC says some signs of a counterfeit respirator include "NIOSH" being spelled incorrectly or the lack of an approval number on the respirator or headband. In addition, N95s specifically should use headbands, not ear loops—ones with ear loops may be real KN95s or KF94s, but not real N95s. You can double-check to see if a particular N95 brand or model is NIOSH-approved by taking a look at the NIOSH-Certified Equipment List.
For more tips on spotting a counterfeit mask, read here.
How to reuse your N95 masks
N95 masks are the optimal choice—but they typically happen to be the most expensive, too. Using masks designed to be disposable like N95s or surgical masks can also feel like a wasteful choice in comparison to a reusable cloth mask. While N95 and KN95 masks are single-use masks, many people have found ways to reuse them effectively.
For crisis capacity with "adapting spaces, staff and resources" such as a shortage of PPE, the CDC approves of strategies like the limited re-use of face masks if necessary. In addition, one study—which, we should note, has not been peer-reviewed—explored how N95 respirators can be reused with a variety of "cleaning" strategies, such as rotating multiple masks or exposing them to heat.
You may also consider rotating N95 masks every couple of days, storing the mask in a breathable paper bag in between uses, a method that many healthcare professionals used when PPE supply was limited. "For an N95, we'd recommend you switch [the mask] every day," says Assoumou. "But, you can rotate them. If you have three masks, [for example], you could number them and switch them around."
Keep in mind that, over time, reusing your mask can begin to degrade its protective qualities over time. Reuse at your discretion and look for any visible signs of mask wear and tear, such as fraying, stretched-out straps or deterioration of the mask itself.
How to maximize your protection from any mask
While N95 respirators are best in class, you can still achieve a level of protection and fit from other masking methods. Mask efficacy greatly depends on factors like the fit on your face, so it's important when you're wearing your mask, you're wearing it correctly.
"You'll always want to think about fit and filtration," says Assoumou. "You can wear a surgical mask and put a cloth mask over it. This is what the CDC was recommending for a while," referring to the CDC's recommendations for double-masking. She explains: "What the cloth mask does is that it improves the fit—it fits better around your mouth and prevents gaps. That's a problem with a lot of surgical masks—you get the filtration, but there are gaps along the way. That would be the easy way to improve what you're using right now."
While you can double mask with a cloth mask and surgical mask to add more protective layers and achieve a better fit, that is the only way you should be double-masking. The CDC says to never combine two medical procedure masks—this means no layering of multiple surgical masks. Surgical masks are not designed to fit tightly to begin with, so doubling up on surgical masks won't help to improve the fit.
In addition, the CDC says you should never combine a KN95 mask with any other mask—this means no layering or double-masking at all when you're wearing a KN95. For N95s, Pierre recommends the same guidance, avoiding any extra layering. "Doubling up on N95s is not my recommendation—it's already uncomfortable enough and I don't think it's giving you any additional benefits. These are already filtering out 95% or over 95% of those airborne particles if you're wearing a credible N95."
Additional reporting by Amanda Tarlton.
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Prices were accurate at the time this article was published but may change over time.
This article originally appeared on Reviewed: N95, KN95 masks: Where to buy them for protection from omicron