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ProSight Global, Inc. Reports Second Quarter 2019 Results

Net Income from Continuing Operations of $8.7 million, $0.22 per Diluted Share (1), and Adjusted Operating Income (2) of $14.2 million, $0.36 per Diluted Share (1).

MORRISTOWN, N.J., Aug. 8, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- ProSight Global, Inc. (NYSE: PROS) ("ProSight") today reported results for the second quarter of 2019.

(PRNewsfoto/ProSight Global, Inc.)

Highlights for the second quarter and year to date of 2019 include:

  • Gross written premiums ("GWP") for ongoing niches(3) increased 10.8%, to $229.7 million, as compared to the second quarter of 2018, with growth in GWP across all customer segments.
  • The combined ratio was 98.1% for the second quarter of 2019.
  • Net investment income increased 11.9% to $17.4 million, compared to the second quarter of 2018.
  • Fully diluted book value per share (1) grew by 17.7% to $11.63, for the six months ended June 30, 2019.
  • The annualized operating return on equity was 7.9% for the second quarter of 2019 and 10.6% for the six months ended June 30, 2019, and the annualized adjusted operating return on equity (4) was 12.8% for the second quarter of 2019 and 13.1% for the six months ended June 30, 2019.
  • Subsequent to the quarter, on July 25, 2019 ProSight's shares began trading on the New York Stock Exchange ("NYSE") under the ticker symbol PROS and on July 29, 2019, the Company completed its Initial Public Offering.

From ProSight CEO Larry Hannon:

"Our second quarter results continue to reflect the strong underwriting profit and growth capabilities of our specialty niche portfolio.  Additionally, I am extremely proud of our employees and our distribution partners for their hard work and dedication, culminating in our recent listing on the New York Stock Exchange.  We are poised to continue to provide long term value to our customers and our shareholders as a publicly traded company."

Net income from continuing operations was $8.7 million, or $0.22 per diluted share(1), for the second quarter of 2019, compared to $14.7 million, or $0.37 per diluted share(1), for the second quarter of 2018. The decrease in net income primarily resulted from an increase in other expenses of $7.2 million, due to costs associated with the transition of our former Chief Executive Officer, partially offset by an increase in net investment income of $1.9 million.  Adjusted operating income(2) was $14.2 million, or $0.36 per diluted share(1) for the second quarter of 2019, compared to $14.1 million, or $0.36 per diluted share(1), for the second quarter of 2018.

Total ongoing GWP (3) were $229.7 million for the second quarter of 2019, compared to $207.3 million for the second quarter of 2018, an increase of 10.8%.  Ongoing GWP (3) growth was driven by strong growth within the Consumer Services (+33.5%), Construction (+22.2%), and Marine and Energy (+10.1%) customer segments.  Other GWP(3) were $5.3 million for the second quarter of 2019, compared to $15.3 million for the second quarter of 2018, the decrease driven by the exit from the excess workers compensation niche.  GWP including Other(3), increased 5.6% for the second quarter of 2019 when compared to the second quarter of 2018.  

Underwriting income (2) was $3.8 million for the second quarter of 2019, compared to $5.1 million for the second quarter of 2018.  The combined ratio for the second quarter of 2019 was 98.1%, compared to 97.2% for the second quarter of 2018.  The increase in the combined ratio was due to an increase in the loss and loss adjustment expense ("LAE") ratio, partially offset by a decrease in the expense ratio, as discussed below:

  • The loss and LAE ratio was 62.8% for the second quarter of 2019, compared to 60.0% for the second quarter of 2018. Excluding the effect of the Whole Account Quota Share (the "WAQS"), the adjusted loss and LAE ratio (6) was 61.7% for the second quarter of 2019, compared to 59.9% for the second quarter of 2018. The second quarter of 2019 included favorable prior period reserve development of $2.7 million (1.3 percentage points) compared to $1.3 million (0.8 percentage points) of favorable prior period reserve development in the second quarter of 2018. Catastrophe losses were $3.0 million (1.5 percentage points) in the second quarter of 2019, compared to no catastrophe losses in the second quarter of 2018.
  • The expense ratio was 35.3% for the second quarter of 2019, compared to 37.2% in the second quarter of 2018. Excluding the effect of the WAQS, the adjusted expense ratio(6) was 36.4% for the second quarter of 2019 compared to 37.3% in the second quarter of 2018. Excluding the WAQS, the policy acquisition expense ratio was 23.6% in the second quarter of 2019, compared to 23.8% in the second quarter of 2018 and general & administrative expense ratio was 12.8% in the second quarter of 2019 compared to 13.5% in the second quarter of 2018.

Net investment income increased by 11.9% to $17.4 million for the second quarter of 2019, from $15.5 million for the second quarter of 2018.  The increase in net investment income was driven by an increase in the size of the investment portfolio.  Total cash and invested assets were $2.1 billion at June 30, 2019, growth of 16.7%, from $1.8 billion at December 31, 2018.  The net annualized yield on total cash and investments was 3.5% for the second quarter of 2019, compared to 3.7% for the second quarter of 2018.  Realized investment gains for the second quarter of 2019 were $0.1 million, compared to realized investment gains of $0.7 million for the second quarter of 2018.

Total stockholders' equity was $459.0 million as of June 30, 2019, compared to $389.8 million as of December 31, 2018.  Tangible stockholders' equity (5) was $429.7 million as of June 30, 2019, compared $360.6 million as of December 31, 2018. The increases in total stockholders' equity and tangible stockholders' equity were driven by net income produced for the six months ended June 30, 2019, coupled with a meaningful increase in accumulated other comprehensive income ("AOCI") of $51.2 million

Fully diluted book value per share (1) grew by 17.7% to $11.63 at June 30, 2019, compared to $9.88 at December 31, 2018. Fully diluted tangible book value per share (1) (5) increased by 19.1% to $10.89 at June 30, 2019, compared to $9.14 at December 31, 2018. 

(1). All per share amounts have been restated to give effect to the reorganization of ProSight on July 25, 2019 (see "Reorganization") but the information shown here does not reflect the $51.6 million of net proceeds received by ProSight in its Initial Public Offering completed on July 29, 2019.

(2). Adjusted Operating Income and Underwriting Income are non-GAAP measures. See "Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Measures".

(3). Total GWP for the second quarter of 2019 including Other were $235.0 million. Total GWP for the six months ended June 30, 2019 including Other were $490.9 million. Other includes GWP from certain niches that are no longer part of our ongoing business. All GWP from exited niches are included in "Other" which consists of (i) primary and excess workers' compensation coverage for Self-Insured Groups (ii) niches exited prior to 2018, many with a concentration in commercial auto, (iii) fronting arrangements in which all premium written is ceded to a third party, (iv) participation in industry pools, and (v) emerging new business customer segments.

(4). Adjusted operating return on equity is a non-GAAP measure   Adjusted operating return on equity is adjusted operating income expressed on an annualized basis as a percentage of average beginning and ending stockholders' equity during the period.

(5). Tangible stockholders' equity and fully diluted tangible book value per share are non-GAAP measures. Tangible stockholders' equity is total common stockholders' equity excluding the value of goodwill and other intangible assets.  Fully diluted tangible book value per share is total common stockholders' equity excluding the after-tax value of goodwill and other intangible assets divided by the number of common shares outstanding, unvested restricted shares, and vested not issued shares. See "Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Measures".

(6). Adjusted loss and LAE ratio and adjusted expense ratio are non-GAAP financial measures. We define adjusted loss and LAE ratio and adjusted expense ratio  as the corresponding ratio (calculated in accordance with GAAP) excluding the effects of the WAQS. We use these adjusted ratios as internal performance measures in the management of our operations because we believe they give our management and other users of our financial information useful insight into our results of operations and our underlying business performance. Our adjusted loss and LAE ratio and adjusted expense ratio should not be viewed as substitutes for our loss and LAE ratio, expense ratio and combined ratio, respectively.

About ProSight 

Founded in 2009 and headquartered in Morristown, New Jersey, ProSight Global, Inc. is an innovative property and casualty insurance company that designs unique insurance solutions to help customers improve their business and realize value from their insurance purchasing decision. The company focuses on select niche industries, deploying differentiated underwriting and claims expertise with the goal of enhancing each customer's operating performance.  ProSight's products are sold through a limited and select group of retail and wholesale distribution partners.  Each of ProSight's regulated insurance company subsidiaries are rated "A-" (Excellent) by A.M. Best. To learn more about ProSight visit www.prosightspecialty.com.

Forward-Looking Statements

This release contains forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements include statements relating to future developments in ProSight business or expectations for ProSight's future financial performance and any statement not involving a historical fact. Forward-looking statements use words such as "anticipate," "believe," "estimate," "expect," "intend," "plan," "should," "seek," "continue," and other words and terms of similar meaning.  ProSight's management believes that these forward-looking statements are reasonable as of the time made.  However, caution should be taken not to place undue reliance on any such forward-looking statements because such statements speak only as of the date when made.  Except as required by law, ProSight undertakes no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.  Forward-looking statements are subject to known and unknown risks and uncertainties, many of which may be beyond our control. ProSight cautions you that forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance or outcomes and that actual performance and outcomes may differ materially from those made in or suggested by the forward-looking statements contained in this release.  For a discussion of some of the risks and important factors that could affect ProSight's future results and financial condition, see our filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") filings, including, but not limited to, the risks and uncertainties included under the captions "Risk Factors" in our ProSight's Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the period ended June 30, 2019 filed on August 8, 2019.  References to "we," "us," "our," the "Company" and "ProSight", refer to ProSight Global, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries.

Reorganization

ProSight was incorporated in Delaware in 2010.  Prior to July 25, 2019, ProSight was a wholly-owned subsidiary of ProSight Global Holdings Limited ("PGHL"), a Bermuda holding company.  Effective July 25, 2019, PGHL merged with and into ProSight, with ProSight surviving the merger. As a result of the merger, all shares of PGHL then outstanding were converted into the right to receive, without interest, 6.46 shares of ProSight for each share of PGHL. All share and per share amounts in this release have been restated to give effect to this conversion, including reclassifying an amount equal to the change in value of common stock to additional paid-in capital, as of the stated period or date.  Further details regarding this merger and related reorganization transactions are included in ProSight's Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the period ended June 30, 2019 filed on August 8, 2019

Non-GAAP Financial Measures

In presenting ProSight Global, Inc.'s results, management has included financial measures that are not calculated under standards or rules that comprise of U.S. generally accepted accounting principles ("GAAP"). Such measures, including underwriting income, adjusted operating income, adjusted operating return on equity, adjusted loss and LAE excluding WAQS, adjusted expense ratio excluding WAQS, adjusted combined ratio excluding WAQS, and tangible stockholders' equity are referred to as non-GAAP measures. These non-GAAP measures may be defined or calculated differently by other companies. These measures should not be viewed as a substitute for those measures determined in accordance with GAAP.  Reconciliations of these non-GAAP financial measures to the most comparable GAAP figures are included at the end of this press release.

PROSIGHT GLOBAL, INC.

CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

($ in thousands, except per share data)




(Unaudited)


(As Restated)



June 30 


December 31 



2019


2018

Assets    





Investments:    





Fixed income securities, available-for-sale at fair value (amortized cost
$1,855,160 in 2019 and $1,729,755 in 2018)


$1,883,989


$     1,693,382

Commercial levered loans at amortized cost (fair value $16,168 in 2019 and
$15,858 in 2018)


16,549


16,915

Limited partnerships and limited liability companies at fair value (cost $58,387 in
2019 and $51,903 in 2018)


62,351


53,432

Short-term investments


49,824


36,661

Total investments


2,012,713


1,800,390






Cash and cash equivalents


34,241


22,279

Restricted cash


8,929


7,621

Accrued investment income


13,314


12,279

Premiums and other receivables, net


196,128


200,347

Receivable from reinsurers on paid losses


9,927


12,428

Reinsurance receivables on unpaid losses


210,021


185,295

Deferred policy acquisition costs


101,740


93,613

Prepaid reinsurance premiums


59,218


44,626

Net deferred income taxes


13,724


33,239

Goodwill and net intangible assets


29,204


29,219

Fixed assets and capitalized software, net


38,145


39,001

Other assets


33,328


57,653

Assets of discontinued operations


19,278


19,719

Total assets


$2,799,444


$     2,577,106






Liabilities    





Reserve for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses


$1,483,660


$     1,396,812

Reserve for unearned premiums


472,907


435,933

Ceded reinsurance payable


15,987


13,281

Notes payable, net of debt issuance costs


182,517


182,355

Funds held under reinsurance agreements


72,362


63,165

Other liabilities


91,293


73,474

Liabilities of discontinued operations


21,768


22,256

Total liabilities


2,340,494


2,187,276






Stockholders' equity (1)





Preferred stock, $0.01 par value; 50,000,000 shares authorized; no shares
issued or outstanding



Common stock, $0.01 par value; 200,000,000 shares authorized; 38,864,289
shares issued and 38,851,369 shares outstanding


389


389

Paid-in capital


603,163


607,260

Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)


28,844


(22,315)

Retained deficit


(173,246)


(195,304)

Treasury shares - at cost (12,920 shares)


(200)


(200)

Total stockholders' equity


458,950


389,830

Total liabilities and stockholders' equity


$2,799,444


$     2,577,106


(1). All share amounts have been restated to give effect to the reorganization of ProSight on July 25, 2019. See "Reorganization".

 

 

PROSIGHT GLOBAL, INC.

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS (UNAUDITED)

($ in thousands)



Three Months Ended June 30


Six Months Ended June 30


2019


2018


2019


2018

Revenues:    








  Net premiums earned    

$          202,480


$          183,123


$          398,088


$          350,579

  Net investment income    

17,398


15,548


34,556


29,257

  Realized investment gains, net    

137


686


250


399

  Other income

97


168


190


336

Total revenues    

220,112


199,525


433,084


380,571









Expenses:    








  Net losses and loss adjustment expenses incurred    

127,115


109,933


245,448


211,787

  Policy acquisition expenses    

45,533


43,253


92,106


81,624

  General and administrative expenses    

26,028


24,880


53,222


50,102

  Interest expense    

3,147


3,084


6,509


6,115

  Other expense    

7,170



7,170


Total expenses    

208,993


181,150


404,455


349,628









Income from continuing operations before income taxes    

11,119


18,375


28,629


30,943









Income tax provision:    








  Current    

82


(397)


223


(404)

  Deferred    

2,341


4,120


6,015


6,685

Total income tax expense

2,423


3,723


6,238


6,281









Net income from continuing operations

8,696


14,652


22,391


24,662









Discontinued operations:








  Net (loss) income from discontinued operations

(78)


(198)


(333)


587









Net income

$              8,618


$            14,454


$            22,058


$            25,249









Return on equity

7.9%


16.0%


10.6%


13.2%









Adjusted operating income

$            14,228


$            14,110


$            27,858


$            24,347









Adjusted operating return on equity

12.8%


15.4%


13.1%


13.1%


(1). Return on equity is net income expressed on an annualized basis as a percentage of average beginning and ending stockholders' equity during the period.

(2). Adjusted Operating Income is a non-GAAP measure. See "Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Measures".

(3). Adjusted operating return on equity is adjusted operating income expressed on an annualized basis as a percentage of average beginning and ending stockholders' equity during the period.

 

 

PROSIGHT GLOBAL, INC.

SUPPLEMENTARY UNDERWRITING INFORMATION (UNAUDITED)

($ in thousands)




Three Months Ended June 30




Six Months Ended June 30



2019


2018




2019


2018












Gross written premiums


$          235,032


$          222,555




$          490,870


$          471,975

Net written premiums


210,568


213,035




420,470


474,387

Net premiums earned


202,480


183,123




398,088


350,579












Net losses and LAE


127,115


109,933




245,448


211,787

    Catastrophe loss and LAE


3,000


-




3,000


-

    Favorable prior period development


(2,733)


(1,335)




(3,128)


(2,605)

Underwriting, acquisition, and insurance expenses


71,561


68,133




145,328


131,726

    Policy acquisition expenses


45,533


43,253




92,106


81,624

    General and administrative expenses


26,028


24,880




53,222


50,102












Underwriting income


$             3,804


$             5,057




$             7,312


$             7,066












Underwriting Ratios

































    Ex-Cat current accident year loss and LAE ratio


62.6%


60.8%




61.7%


61.2%

    Catastrophe loss and LAE ratio


1.5%


0.0%




0.8%


0.0%

    Favorable prior period development ratio


(1.3%)


(0.8%)




(0.8%)


(0.8%)

Loss and LAE ratio


62.8%


60.0%




61.7%


60.4%












    Policy acquisition expense ratio


22.5%


23.6%




23.1%


23.3%

    General and administrative expense ratio


12.8%


13.6%




13.4%


14.3%

Expense ratio


35.3%


37.2%




36.5%


37.6%












Combined ratio


98.1%


97.2%




98.2%


98.0%


(1). The Supplementary Underwriting Information includes the impact of "the WAQS." See "Factors Affecting Our Results of Operations" on the following page excluding the impact of "the WAQS."

 

 

PROSIGHT GLOBAL, INC.

FACTORS AFFECTING THE RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (WAQS) (UNAUDITED)

($ in thousands)























Three Months Ended June 30, 2019


Three Months Ended June 30, 2018



Including


Effect of


Excluding


Including


Effect of


Excluding

($ in thousands)


WAQS


WAQS


WAQS


WAQS


WAQS


WAQS

GWP


$

235,032


$


$

235,032


$

222,555


$


$

222,555

Ceded written premiums



(24,464)





(24,464)



(9,520)



18,831



(28,351)

  Net written premiums


$

210,568


$


$

210,568


$

213,035


$

18,831


$

194,204

  Net retention(1)



89.6%





89.6%



95.7%





87.3%

Net earned premiums


$

202,480


$


$

202,480


$

183,123


$

(1,368)


$

184,491

Losses and LAE



127,115



2,255



124,860



109,933



(642)



110,575

Underwriting, acquisition and insurance
expenses 



71,561



(2,255)



73,816



68,133



(624)



68,757

Underwriting income (loss)(2)


$

3,804


$


$

3,804


$

5,057


$

(102)


$

5,159

Loss and LAE ratio



62.8%







60.0%



46.9%



Expense ratio



35.3%







37.2%



45.6%



Combined ratio



98.1%







97.2%



92.5%



Adjusted loss and LAE ratio(3)







61.7%







59.9%

Adjusted expense ratio(3)







36.4%







37.3%

Adjusted combined ratio(3)







98.1%







97.2%




Six Months Ended June 30, 2019


Six Months Ended June 30, 2018



Including


Effect of


Excluding


Including


Effect of


Excluding

($ in thousands)


WAQS


WAQS


WAQS


WAQS


WAQS


WAQS

GWP


$

490,870


$


$

490,870


$

471,975


$


$

471,975

Ceded written premiums



(70,400)



3



(70,403)



2,412



68,800



(66,388)

  Net written premiums


$

420,470


$

3


$

420,467


$

474,387


$

68,800


$

405,587

  Net retention(1)



85.7%





85.7%



100.5%





85.9%

Net earned premiums


$

398,088


$

3


$

398,085


$

350,579


$

(14,544)


$

365,123

Losses and LAE



245,448



2,207



243,241



211,787



(8,548)



220,335

Underwriting, acquisition and insurance expenses 



145,328



(2,205)



147,533



131,726



(4,906)



136,632

Underwriting income (loss)(2)


$

7,312


$

1


$

7,311


$

7,066


$

(1,090)


$

8,156

Loss and LAE ratio



61.7%







60.4%



58.8%



Expense ratio



36.5%







37.6%



33.7%



Combined ratio



98.2%







98.0%



92.5%



Adjusted loss and LAE ratio(3)







61.1%







60.4%

Adjusted expense ratio(3)







37.1%







37.4%

Adjusted combined ratio(3)







98.2%







97.8%


(1). The ratio of net written premiums to gross written premiums.

(2). Underwriting income is a non-GAAP measure.  See "Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures"

(3). Adjusted loss and LAE ratio, adjusted expense ratio and adjusted combined ratio are non-GAAP financial measures. We define adjusted loss and LAE ratio, adjusted expense ratio and adjusted combined ratio as the corresponding ratio (calculated in accordance with GAAP) excluding the effects of the WAQS. We use these adjusted ratios as internal performance measures in the management of our operations because we believe they give our management and other users of our financial information useful insight into our results of operations and our underlying business performance. Our adjusted loss and LAE ratio, adjusted expense ratio and adjusted combined ratio should not be viewed as substitutes for our loss and LAE ratio, expense ratio and combined ratio, respectively.

 

 

PROSIGHT GLOBAL, INC.

SHARE AND PER SHARE INFORMATION (UNAUDITED)




(Unaudited)


(As Restated)



June 30 


December 31 



2019


2018

Shares Outstanding


38,851,369


38,851,369

Fully Diluted Shares Outstanding


39,454,929


39,454,929






Book Value Per Share(2)


$              11.81


$              10.03

Book Value Per Share (Fully Diluted)(2)


$              11.63


$               9.88

Tangible Book Value Per Share(2)


$              11.06


$               9.28

Tangible Book Value Per Share (Fully Diluted)(2)


$              10.89


$               9.14

 



Three Months Ended June 30


Six Months Ended June 30



2019


2018


2019


2018

Weighted Average Basic Shares Outstanding


38,851,369


38,742,842


38,851,369


38,742,842

Weighted Average Diluted Shares Outstanding


39,454,929


39,440,938


39,454,929


39,440,938










Earnings per Share - Basic:









  Net income (loss) from continuing operations


$               0.22


$               0.38


$            0.58


$          0.64

  Adjusted operating income(1)


$               0.37


$               0.36


$            0.72


$          0.63










Earnings per Share - Diluted:









  Net income (loss) from continuing operations


$               0.22


$               0.37


$            0.57


$          0.63

  Adjusted operating income(1)


$               0.36


$               0.36


$            0.71


$          0.62










Adjusted operating return on equity (ROE)(3)


12.8%


15.4%


13.1%


13.1%

Adjusted operating return on tangible equity (ROTE)(3)


13.8%


16.5%


14.1%


14.1%


(1). Adjusted operating income is a non-GAAP measure. See "Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures".

(2). Book value per share is total common stockholders' equity divided by the number of common shares outstanding. Tangible book value per share is total common stockholders' equity excluding value of goodwill and other intangible assets divided by the number of common shares outstanding.  Fully diluted book value per share is total common stockholders' equity divided by the number of common shares outstanding, unvested restricted shares, and vested not issued shares.   Fully diluted tangible book value per share is total common stockholders' equity excluding the after-tax value of goodwill and other intangible assets divided by the number of common shares outstanding, unvested restricted shares, and vested not issued shares. 

(3). Adjusted operating return on equity is the annualized value of adjusted operating income divided by average total stockholders' equity for the two most recent sequential periods.  Adjusted operating return on tangible equity is the annualized value of adjusted operating income divided by average total stockholders' equity excluding goodwill and other intangible assets for the two most recent sequential periods. 

(4). All share and per share amounts have been restated to give effect to the reorganization of ProSight on July 25, 2019. See "Reorganization".

 

PROSIGHT GLOBAL, INC.

GROSS WRITTEN PREMIUM BY CUSTOMER SEGMENT (UNAUDITED)

($ in millions)




Three Months Ended June 30




Six Months Ended June 30





2019


2018


% Change


2019


2018


% Change

Construction


$                32.5


$                26.6


22.2%


$                55.8


$                49.5


12.7%

Consumer Services


37.9


28.4


33.5%


65.4


50.3


30.0%

Marine and Energy


20.8


18.9


10.1%


36.8


34.2


7.6%

Media and Entertainment


39.3


38.0


3.4%


76.8


78.2


(1.8%)

Professional Services


29.1


27.9


4.3%


58.7


57.5


2.1%

Real Estate


46.6


44.1


5.7%


75.3


72.0


4.6%

Transportation


23.5


23.4


0.4%


57.5


50.4


14.1%

   Customer Segments Subtotal


229.7


207.3


10.8%


426.3


392.1


8.7%














Other


5.3


15.3


(65.4%)


64.6


79.9


(19.1%)

Total GWP


$              235.0


$              222.6


5.6%


$              490.9


$              472.0


4.0%















 

Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures

(1). Underwriting income is a non-GAAP financial measure that we believe is useful in evaluating our underwriting performance without regard to investment income. Underwriting income represents the pre-tax profitability of our insurance operations and is derived by subtracting losses and LAE and underwriting, acquisition and insurance expenses from net earned premiums. We use underwriting income as an internal performance measure in the management of our operations because we believe it gives us and users of our financial information useful insight into our results of operations and our underlying business performance. Underwriting income should not be considered in isolation or viewed as a substitute for net income calculated in accordance with GAAP, and other companies may calculate underwriting income differently.

Net income for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018 reconciles to underwriting income as follows:



Three Months Ended June 30



Six Months Ended June 30

($ in thousands)


2019


2018



2019


2018

Net income from continuing operations


$             8,696


$           14,652



$           22,391


$           24,662

Income tax expense


2,423


3,723



6,238


6,281

Income before taxes


11,119


18,375



28,629


30,943











Net investment income


17,398


15,548



34,556


29,257

Net investment gains


137


686



250


399

Interest and other expense, net


10,220


2,916



13,489


5,779











Underwriting income


$             3,804


$            5,057



$             7,312


$             7,066


(2). Adjusted operating income is a non-GAAP financial measure that we use as an internal performance measure in the management of our operations because we believe it gives our management and other users of our financial information useful insight into our results of operations and underlying business performance, by excluding items that are not part of our underlying profitability drivers or likely to re-occur in the foreseeable future. Adjusted operating income should not be considered in isolation or viewed as a substitute for our net income calculated in accordance with GAAP. Other companies may calculate adjusted operating income differently.

Adjusted operating income for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018 reconciles to net income as follows:



Three Months Ended June 30



Six Months Ended June 30

($ in thousands)


2019


2018



2019


2018

Net income from continuing operations


$             8,696


$           14,652



$           22,391


$           24,662

Income tax expense


2,423


3,723



6,238


6,281

Income before taxes


11,119


18,375



28,629


30,943











Transition expense and Net investment (gains) losses


7,033


(686)



6,920


(399)

Adjusted operating income before taxes


18,152


17,689



35,549


30,544











Less: income tax expense on adjusted operating income


3,924


3,579



7,691


6,197











Adjusted operating income


$           14,228


$           14,110



$           27,858


$           24,347

 

(3). Tangible stockholders' equity is a non-GAAP financial measure. We define tangible stockholders' equity as stockholders' equity less goodwill and intangible assets. Our definition of tangible stockholders' equity may not be comparable to that of other companies, and it should not be viewed as a substitute for stockholders' equity calculated in accordance with GAAP. We use tangible stockholders' equity internally to evaluate the strength of our balance sheet and to compare returns relative to this measure.

Stockholders' equity at June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018 reconciles to tangible stockholders' equity as follows:



June 30, 2019


December 31, 2018

($ in thousands)





Stockholders' equity


$               458,950


$               389,830

Less: Intangible assets


29,204


29,219

Tangible stockholders' equity 


$               429,746


$               360,611

Book value per share


11.81


10.03

Tangible book value per share 


11.06


9.28


 

Cision

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