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Is USANA Health Sciences (NYSE:USNA) Using Too Much Debt?

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Howard Marks put it nicely when he said that, rather than worrying about share price volatility, 'The possibility of permanent loss is the risk I worry about... and every practical investor I know worries about.' It's only natural to consider a company's balance sheet when you examine how risky it is, since debt is often involved when a business collapses. We note that USANA Health Sciences, Inc. (NYSE:USNA) does have debt on its balance sheet. But the real question is whether this debt is making the company risky.

When Is Debt A Problem?

Debt assists a business until the business has trouble paying it off, either with new capital or with free cash flow. Ultimately, if the company can't fulfill its legal obligations to repay debt, shareholders could walk away with nothing. However, a more common (but still painful) scenario is that it has to raise new equity capital at a low price, thus permanently diluting shareholders. Of course, plenty of companies use debt to fund growth, without any negative consequences. The first step when considering a company's debt levels is to consider its cash and debt together.

See our latest analysis for USANA Health Sciences

How Much Debt Does USANA Health Sciences Carry?

As you can see below, at the end of April 2022, USANA Health Sciences had US$10.0m of debt, up from none a year ago. Click the image for more detail. But on the other hand it also has US$237.8m in cash, leading to a US$227.8m net cash position.

debt-equity-history-analysis
debt-equity-history-analysis

A Look At USANA Health Sciences' Liabilities

Zooming in on the latest balance sheet data, we can see that USANA Health Sciences had liabilities of US$158.0m due within 12 months and liabilities of US$25.0m due beyond that. Offsetting this, it had US$237.8m in cash and US$7.16m in receivables that were due within 12 months. So it can boast US$61.9m more liquid assets than total liabilities.

This short term liquidity is a sign that USANA Health Sciences could probably pay off its debt with ease, as its balance sheet is far from stretched. Succinctly put, USANA Health Sciences boasts net cash, so it's fair to say it does not have a heavy debt load!

On the other hand, USANA Health Sciences's EBIT dived 12%, over the last year. If that rate of decline in earnings continues, the company could find itself in a tight spot. The balance sheet is clearly the area to focus on when you are analysing debt. But it is future earnings, more than anything, that will determine USANA Health Sciences's ability to maintain a healthy balance sheet going forward. So if you want to see what the professionals think, you might find this free report on analyst profit forecasts to be interesting.

Finally, a business needs free cash flow to pay off debt; accounting profits just don't cut it. While USANA Health Sciences has net cash on its balance sheet, it's still worth taking a look at its ability to convert earnings before interest and tax (EBIT) to free cash flow, to help us understand how quickly it is building (or eroding) that cash balance. During the last three years, USANA Health Sciences produced sturdy free cash flow equating to 77% of its EBIT, about what we'd expect. This cold hard cash means it can reduce its debt when it wants to.

Summing up

While it is always sensible to investigate a company's debt, in this case USANA Health Sciences has US$227.8m in net cash and a decent-looking balance sheet. The cherry on top was that in converted 77% of that EBIT to free cash flow, bringing in US$108m. So is USANA Health Sciences's debt a risk? It doesn't seem so to us. When analysing debt levels, the balance sheet is the obvious place to start. But ultimately, every company can contain risks that exist outside of the balance sheet. These risks can be hard to spot. Every company has them, and we've spotted 2 warning signs for USANA Health Sciences you should know about.

At the end of the day, it's often better to focus on companies that are free from net debt. You can access our special list of such companies (all with a track record of profit growth). It's free.

Have feedback on this article? Concerned about the content? Get in touch with us directly. Alternatively, email editorial-team (at) simplywallst.com.

This article by Simply Wall St is general in nature. We provide commentary based on historical data and analyst forecasts only using an unbiased methodology and our articles are not intended to be financial advice. It does not constitute a recommendation to buy or sell any stock, and does not take account of your objectives, or your financial situation. We aim to bring you long-term focused analysis driven by fundamental data. Note that our analysis may not factor in the latest price-sensitive company announcements or qualitative material. Simply Wall St has no position in any stocks mentioned.