|Expense Ratio (net)||0.00%|
|Category||Muni National Interm|
|Last Cap Gain||0.00|
|Morningstar Risk Rating||Average|
|Beta (3Y Monthly)||0.90|
|5y Average Return||N/A|
|Average for Category||N/A|
|Inception Date||Sep 1, 1977|
Thanks to terrific gains from broadly diversified U.S. equity funds like Vanguard Tax-Managed Capital Apprecation, as well as the fact that the taxable portfolios contain slightly more equity exposure than the tax-deferred portfolios, the tax-efficient portfolios all gained more than the analogous tax-deferred Vanguard Retirement Saver portfolios. The tax-efficient portfolios also limited the drag of taxes.
The firm views tax costs as another line item that drags on investors' take-home returns, so it devotes research and educational efforts to matters of tax management. Many of its funds are designed with tax efficiency in mind. For example, the firm was an innovator in creating exchange-traded funds by making them share classes of already-existing index funds, a structure that enables shareholders in the firm's traditional index equity funds to enjoy tax efficiency on par with their ETF counterparts.
For retired investors in tax-deferred accounts, I've developed model bucket portfolios using Vanguard's lineup. In this portfolio series, tax efficiency takes center stage, with three bucket retirement portfolios geared toward Vanguard investors' taxable accounts. When investing inside of taxable accounts (that is, non-tax-advantaged retirement accounts), sensibly employing a few basic investment types can help limit taxable capital gains and taxable income distributions on an ongoing basis.